Sulfuric acid

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    Experiment 2. Steam Distillation The Isolation of the natural product trans-cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamon bark Abstract: This experiment aims at separating cinnamaldehyde from the cinnamon bark. A mixture of volatile and non-volatile elements is separated through the steam distillation method with temperature being below 100 oC. Moreover, the method is used to extract essential oils. The cinnamaldehyde will be conveyed up with the distillate, observed as an emulsion on the condensed vapor. It…

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    In Experiment 12B we used an umpolung reagent in an umpolung synthesis to synthesize benzoin from benzaldehyde. Umpolung synthesis is a synthetic approach that allows us to switch the identity of a reacting species. For example, the normal chemical reactivity of a nucleophile can be switched to one of an electrophilic compound. Two common agents are cyanide and thiamine (Vitamin B). The mechanisms for both agents are the same. In this experiment, thiamine was used to turn benzaldehyde, an…

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    species to increase, but also has several negative effects that could cause species to become extinct. Ocean acidification occurs as the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the air which then causes the ocean 's pH level to decrease. As the ocean 's acid levels increase, it can affect marine life by helping organisms who make energy by combining sunlight and carbon dioxide, but hurts the chemical communication, impact, and growth of many organisms by increasing the pH. Overall, the increase in…

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    Lowry independently expanded the Arrhenius acid definition into one of his own. The Bronsted-Lowry acid is a molecule or ion that is a proton donor. Lewis's definition emphasizes the role of electron pairs in acid-base reactions. A Lewis acid is an atom, ion or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond. Each theory agrees that an acid is a substance that is dissolved in water and is separated. Although…

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    My topic of interest is the science behind slime. I have researched and found ideas that relate to topics we have learned so far in the first marking period in science. Slime is made up of elements that are mixed together. The "slime" formula is sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Na2B4O7•10H2O), commonly known as borax, to a solution of white glue and water. White glue is an example of a polymer--it is made of long chains of polyvinyl clear plastic film molecules. These chains slide past one…

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    The little instruction leaflet included in the pack, isn't particularly comprehensive, but still it was fairly easy to work out what I needed to do and before I could start I did need to do a little preparation. The instructions did state that I would be needed cold water but didn't say whether that water needed to have been boiled first or left to stand so that any chlorine could dissipate. As I do usually boil the water that I am going to use in a home brew and further along in the…

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    Unknown Compounds

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    When hydrochloric acid was added to the unknown and known solutions, both resulted in no reaction. This also occurred when potassium hydroxide was added to both of the solutions. Barium chloride was then added to the two solutions, which resulted in a cloudy white precipitate…

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    Lab 4.3 Lab

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    REFLECTIONS FOR LAB 4- FRICTION Lab 4.1 to 4.3 is about all the different frictions. We did 3 different labs. 4.1 was pulling a block across different surfaces and finding the difference in friction. 4.2 was about pulling multiple blocks across different surfaces and finding the difference in friction. 4.3 was about pulling blocks but in a bigger surfaces area. In Lab 4.1 we had to pull different blocks across different surfaces. The surfaces were a tabletop, wax paper, paper towel, fine…

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    Introduction This accuracy lab of titration report experiment will discuss how to find the unknown substance molarity. By using some of the lab equipment to help guide and identify the molarity of the unknown substance. I believe that it will take around three hundred drops of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for it to be able to reach to its endpoint of the unknown substance. My reason behind my hypothesis is… Methods In this lab experiment we use a buret to…

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    6. The first step in metabolism of ethanol in humans is the oxidation of ethanol to acetyldehyde by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). At 298 K and pH=7.0, ethanol is incubated with ADH and the concentration of ethanol and acetyldehydee is measured over time. a. Using the results above, calculate the standard free energy change (ΔGº’) for this reaction. Explain your calculations. The standard free energy change can be expressed through the formula ΔGº’=-R(gas constant) T(temp in Kelvin)…

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