Page 1 of 11 - About 104 Essays
  • Huntington's Chorea

    mediate this smooth, coordinated movement are the direct dopamine regulated neuronal pathway that “facilitates the initiation and execution of voluntary movement”, and the indirect acetylcholine (ACh) regulated neuronal pathway that mediates the involuntary and unwanted muscle contractions “from competing with voluntary movements” (Walker 223). Both the dopamine and ACh neurotransmitters synapse on GABAergic neurons that project from the striatum into the globus pallidus external (GPE), and globus pallidus internal (GPI) respectively, and they both have equal and opposite effects on each other; “In other words, the direct pathway (which turns up motor activity) is excited by dopamine while the indirect pathway (which turns down motor activity) is inhibited”, while the indirect pathway (which turns down motor activity) is excited by ACh while the direct pathway (which turns up motor activity) is inhibited (Vonsattel et al. 57). Armed with this knowledge, scientific research has found that HD chorea targets and damages the “GABAergic cells in the striatum that project only to globus pallidus external (GPE), the head of the indirect pathway” (Vonsattel et al. 57). This GABAergic cells loss triggers a degeneration of the caudate nucleus that eventually leads to a loss of inhibition from the indirect pathway to prevent the hyperactivity of the direct pathway to the motor cortex, and thus cannot prevent the unwanted dance-like “jerky” movements that are associated with HD…

    Words: 1559 - Pages: 7
  • Parkinson's Disease Causes

    of Parkinson’s. Unfortunately, side effects of this treatment include nausea and vomiting. With each different variation of medication, there are more and more side effects, making the prescription medication treatment almost invalid. Because of this, some people with the disease will opt for over the counter medications such as Coenzyme Q10 or Creatine. These are antioxidants that will help to slow the progression of the disease. (Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, 2016) Surgery is used to treat…

    Words: 1883 - Pages: 8
  • Case Study: The Direct Pathway

    The basal ganglia (BG) receives input at the striatum from the cortex and provides output from the pallidum, in particular the globus pallidus internal (GPi) via the ventral anterior and lateral (VA/VL) thalamic nuclei to the cortex – forming a motor loop.1,2 There are two major pathways in this motor loop, the direct and indirect pathways.1,2 The direct pathway originates in the cortex, projecting to the striatum of the BG which consists of the caudate and putamen nuclei.1,2 The striatum…

    Words: 735 - Pages: 3
  • Cocaine Over Conditioned Place Preference (CPP)

    the development in cocaine CPP mice, this study will focus on CamKII and BDNF protein levels in the dorsal striatum, a key region in the brain’s reward system and formation of habit learning. An over expression of the RNA-binding protein, HuD, could lead to an increase in protein levels of CamKII and BDNF. Knowing the strong roles both CamKII and BDNF play in drug addiction and CPP, a possible increase in protein levels could explain the stronger CPP behavior. It has been mentioned that the…

    Words: 1102 - Pages: 5
  • Old King Hamlet's Revenge

    Prince Hamlet’s striatum has increased activity at this moment; the idea of getting revenge for his father’s death is blinding him from the logic of the situation. Prince Hamlet’s only concern at this junction is doing what he thinks is right -- getting revenge for his father’s death as quickly as possible so King Hamlet’s murderer, Claudius, gets punished for his tragic crime. Since Old King Hamlet and Prince Hamlet were thick as thieves, the encounter with the ghost, that is assumed to be King…

    Words: 877 - Pages: 4
  • Adult Brain And Teenage Differences

    Differences Between the Teenage and Adult Brain Contrary to common belief, the teen brain and adult brain are incredibly different. Differences between the two brains include the development or the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and the striatum. Furthermore, the brain develops from back to front, so the prefrontal cortex is left undeveloped in the teen years. It is extremely important to understand these differences to know why teens behave the way they behave. The prefrontal cortex does not…

    Words: 544 - Pages: 3
  • Overeating: A Summary And Analysis

    different breeds of mice both genetically prone to obesity and diabetes. One breed had a defect in fat cells that would produce and discharge leptin, a hormone. The other breed had a defect to their ability to respond to leptin and structure its actions. Leptin is important because mice and humans use this hormone to prevent overeating after a meal. The observations say that seeing obesity as a hormonal disorder is too superficial. Obese humans have a high amount of leptin and insulin. These…

    Words: 1124 - Pages: 5
  • The Mesmerising Effects Of Music And The Human Brain

    Language that describes the emotions through melody also plays a key role in forming a relationship between them. As indicated by various researches, music triggers the Ventral and Dorsal Striatum of the Forebrain. The Dorsal Striatum is connected to the regions that are involved in prediction and action whereas the Ventral Striatum is connected to the Limbic system which regulates motivated behaviours such as Fleeing, Feeding, Fighting and Sexual Behaviour. It is also the centre of emotional…

    Words: 1270 - Pages: 6
  • Stress Model

    shock, elevates the dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens and results in more amphetamine and cocaine self-administration (Goeders and Guerin, 1994), suggesting that stress chemicals, such as CRF, glucocorticoids(GCs) , and norepinephrine (NE), have the ability to directly modulate dopaminergic pathway and in turn, response to stress and cue (Johnson et al, 2016). In details, the increase in CRF released during stress and received by the VTA might enhance dopamine release in the VTA. CRF was…

    Words: 1149 - Pages: 5
  • Short Summary: The Cheroid Movement Of The Body

    cerebral cortex to initiate the movement1. The Motor Loop does not interact with the lower motor neurons, it only acts on upper motor neurons and descending tracts to facilitate small, precise movements. When the Putamen is combined with the caudate we get the area of the brain known as the corpus striatum. The corpus striatum contributes to motor control. Virtually all inputs to the basal ganglia arrive via the corpus striatum. The corpus striatum is so important in motor control because it…

    Words: 1418 - Pages: 6
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