proper sequence. We will discuss these motors further when we get to the topic of DC motor control.
* Unipolar motors, with two center-tapped coils which can be treated as four coils (see Figure One-b). These have six or eight (or sometimes five) wires, and can be controlled from a microprocessor with little more than four transistors (see Figure Two).
Figure One. (a) The internal arrangement of the coils for a bipolar stepper motor. (b) The internal arrangement of the coils for a unipolar stepper motor. Wires a through d are attached to the positive motor power supply. Six-wire motors internally connect a with b and c with d; five-wire motors internally connect a, b, c, and d.
Figure One-a Figure One-b
Figure Two. The interface circuit to control unipolar stepper motors from a four-bit I/O…
Motor & Gearbox
The mirrors are required to rotate specific angles. To be able to achieve specific angles we need a stepper motor. The stepper motor is known to divide one revolution into equal steps which is our main requirements for the rotation of the mirrors.
Figure 2-13: The Stepper Motor
The following table shows the stepper motor specifications:
Table 2-1: Stepper Motor Specifications
Current 4.2 A
Torque 8.34 N.m
The desired torque calculated to withstand the mirror…
a) What is the main use of stepper motors?
In essence, stepper motors are applied in motion-control positioning system. For instance in 3D printers, disk drives, intelligent lighting, scanners, CNC machines, printers, camera lenses, plotters and slot machines.
b) What are the similarities and differences between a reluctance, a permanent magnet and hybrid stepper motors?
The three motors are similar in that, they all have power electronic control that comes with electronic…
An interesting characteristic of this motor is that even when it is not powered, the motor exhibits some magnetic resistance to turning.
• Variable-reluctance (VR) stepper motor — Unlike the PM stepper motor, the VR stepper motor does not have a permanent-magnet and creates rotation entirely with electromagnetic forces. This motor does not exhibit magnetic resistance to turning when the motor is not powered.
The basic construction
Stepper motors consist of a permanent magnetic rotating shaft,…
Tata Motor penetrates three different market segments. The company produces utility vehicles, commercial vehicles, and passenger cars. Tata’s largest market is in India but there expanding internationally by providing the best value for the money by focusing on low cost. Tata noticed that the vehicle market was not efficient and certain vehicles were being sold too expensive for the middle-class buyer. Having started in India, a developing nation, Tata focused on the problems first hand.
the TVS Group research paper, collected very dilligently by Mr Shashank Shah, it talks about Corporate Governance in a family owned business that is now one of the top ten companies to manufacture two wheeler vehicles in te world. The paper then looks at the research compiled by Mr Madan Bhasin, who looks at 50 companies and their CG Disclosures. The third paper is the CG Disclosure by Mr Maheshwara, who takes a look at the policy of disclosures of 8 well established companies in India in the…
Leadership Profile: Elon Musk
Elon Musk is arguably one of the greatest leaders in business and innovation of the past few decades, and possibly into the future. As an adolescent, Elon Musk came to the realization that the most difficult thing was to come up with the right question. After much reflection, he decided the question that would shape the rest of his life: what things would have the greatest impact on the future of humanity’s destiny. Since then, Elon Musk has created…
(7a): What challenge does Toyota face?
The market for automobiles is mature and the intensity of rivalry is only going to increase as the industry continues to age. Therefore to be successful in the auto industry, a company must focus on a variety of changing factors or challenges that continue to include demographic, geographic, and technological factors. Another challenge could be the furtherexpansion of its lean low cost manufacturing process.
Looking at demographic factors, age is…
is the willing-ness to listen, for example listening to a friend; responding, is where you are willing to participate in a group discussion; valuing, is a willing-ness to be involved and committed to certain goals; organisation of values and becoming aware of relevance, for example a teenager spends more time in her studies then her boyfriend; and finally, and most complex, characterization is being willing to change one’s behaviour, lifestyle, or way of life, combining beliefs, ideas and…
too has been affected by the recession. The audience starts to trust the narrator by sympathizing with him, Detroit, and Chrysler.
Detroit was once the richest city in America. However, in 2008, Forbes named Detroit “America’s Most Miserable City”. Detroit suffered a great loss from the auto industry downturn. “Imagine living in a city with the country’s highest rate for violent crime and the second-highest unemployment rate. As an added kicker you need more Superfund dollars allocated to your…