Startle reaction

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    cerebellum of adult rats. They found a 1.42-fold increase of gene product in the frontal cortex of PRS adult female rats while the amount of CRF1 in the other parts of the brain was decreased. However, due to the small number of subjects, the p value was less than .05 meaning it was only somewhat statistically significant. Additionally, there was 18.5 times more gene product in the oocytes of the PRS females, but again significance was limited. To test the rats before maternal care became a factor, they tested CRF1 levels at birth and found a 1.6 fold increase in the brain of rats with PRS mothers with p<.05. The offspring groups were then put through different types of behavioral tests including an open field, elevated plus maze, acoustic startle and fear conditioning with some notable differences in behavior discussed later. From their experiments, the most valid findings the researchers concluded were the stress to the mother rats prior to conception resulted in a small increase of CRF1 expression in their frontal cortex and a large increase in their oocytes along with increased CRF1 in the brains of their offspring. Although most likely one of the most important findings, little time was spent discussing the implications of increased CRF1 in the oocytes. They also deduced the offspring displayed differences in fear learning tests. After analyzing the CRF following different levels stress based on behavioral testing type, the researchers deduced the mother and…

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    who were out on convoys or patrolling. I remember the day clearly when my Sargent died. There had been a patrol out doing a routine sweep of our area and he stepped on an IED, which basically turned him into pink mist. There was no body to recover. I remember standing at the left corner security post when the blast went off. The blast was large enough to kill him and open cause minor injuries to the other men around him. There was this sense of panic since there was nothing I could do but watch…

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    Human factors to be considered include ergonomics, fit, ground reaction force, weight, durability, stability, and cushioning. Ergonomics dictates good posture. In order to maintain good posture, referred to as 'neutral posture ', the muscles of the body must be in balance to support an aligned spine13. The design of this shoe must take ergonomics, perception, quality control, and biomechanics into account. Fashion has been a deciding factor in the shoe industry over the last decade.14 For…

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    Heat Dissolving Lab Report

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    How the changing mass of solute effects the heat given out when dissolved in water Aim To investigate how the changing mass of a solute will affect the energy given out. Introduction Dissolving is when a solute is mixed into a solvent to form a solution. Dissolving can be either endothermic or exothermic. Endothermic reactions happen when the energy given out when bonds are broken, is greater than the energy given out when bonds are made. As more energy is used and taken in, the surroundings…

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    Enzymes speed up the rates of most biochemical reactions by helping reactants interact with each other. Since enzymes are highly specific for a specific reaction, they only catalyze one or a few types of reaction. One of important enzymes in human body and many other animals is amylase that hydrolyzes starch, a major part of human diet for many people in the world. There is a variety of amylase produced from many sources in our body such as salivary glands in the mouth, pancreas cells, and small…

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    The Effects of Enzyme Concentration on Reaction Rates and Pressure Background - While conducting the Enzyme Lab, students used enzymes as catalysts in order to speed up the reaction processes involved in several tests. Enzymes are substances produced by living organisms that act as a catalyst, while a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of the chemical reaction. Furthermore, varying amounts of pH and enzymes were added to the mixture in order to determine the substance’s rate of…

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    Thiosulphate Lab Report

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    Purpose To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of the thiosulphate reaction. Hypothesis If the temperature increases, then the rate of the thiosulphate reaction will also increase. Variables Independent variable: Temperature change in each experiment, which will be varied by increasing the temperature by 10°C each time. Dependent Variable: Rate of reaction, which will be measured by measuring the time taken for the cross to not be visible. Constants: Concentration of HCl and…

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    I predict that the higher the temperature of the solution the faster the reaction will take place because the particles will collide more when the temperature rises. The aim of this experiment was to test if the temperature affects the rate of reaction between hypo and dilute hydrochloric acid? How does temperature affect the rate of reaction between hypo and dilute hydrochloric acid? The kinetic particle theory explains the properties of different states of matter. The particles in solids,…

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    Na) cause corrosion, the breakdown of a metal resulting from reactions with chemicals in its environment. The oxygen oxidizes with the metal, and the sodium help speed up the corrosion process. The presence of oxygen and electrolytes (Sodium – Na) in sample number 2 make it more…

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    affect the reaction rate of enzymes reacting with their corresponding substrates in order to learn more about how enzymes function in different environments. The independent variables investigated in this experiment were the concentration of different substrates, the temperature of the environment, and the effect of a catalyst on the reaction rate. The dependent variable for all of the investigations was the time it took for the reaction to occur. To investigate the effect of the concentration…

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