acidification is, what are the effects of ocean acidification, who are the ones being mostly affected, and how can we resolve this issue. According to NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), ocean acidification is defined as, “a reduction in the pH of the ocean over an extended period of time, caused primarily by uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere”. Carbon dioxide that has…
species (Hardt & Safina 71). Other experiments show the struggle of phytoplankton balancing the changing pH inside them and how it correlates with the impaired ability to reproduce or grow. Many species cannot genetically adapt because ocean acidification is occurring too rapidly. Researchers at Princeton University claimed that acidification…
The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the Fishers exact test.
Table 1: Comparison of microbial growth between different groups
Sodium Hypochloride Total Fishers exact test
Endovac Laser Control p-value
No Growth 5(50.0%) 8(80.0%) 0 15(37.5%) <0.001*
<103 5(50.0%) 2(20.0%) 0 7(17.5%)
103 – 108 0 0 0 8(20.0%)
>108 0 0 10(100.0%) 10(25.0%)
Total 10 10 10 40(100.0%)
*p<0.05 statistically significant
p>0.05 non significant, NS
Amongst the 10…
Original Synthesis of Cadmium Nitrate Tetra-Hydrate
Cadmium nitrate tetra-Hydrate is an inorganic compound from the family of compounds with the general formula Cd (NO3)2.XH20, where X=4, hence the molecule has four molecules of water of crystallization in its structure. It exists as a salt but in its anhydrous state, it is known to be a volatile substance. It is a colorless substance as are all the compounds in the family of cadmium nitrates. Cadmium…
A pressure vs. Volume analysis was done to determine the bubble points for Oil A, Oil B and water, with CO2
Represented in Fig. 7 below, the Pressure vs. Volume behavior of Oil A is displayed, the graph is separated into two different sections as Oil A transitions from a single phase fluid to a two phase fluid, the transition occurs at 800 psi which represents the bubble point for Oil A.
Fig XX. Pressure vs. Volume Oil A
Analysis was done on the relationship between…
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the pH of known substances by use of a pH color indicator of red cabbage and the use of a pH meter. As well as, to observe the pH changes in a substance by adding in more basic of acidic to buffered solutions and unbuffered solutions. This experiment will also will show how to calculate H3O+, OH- and pH by use of known values.
In order to do this lab, there are a few key components one needs to know and understand first. A solution is a homogeneous…
the home to many known and unknown organisms. The first few meters of the ocean are an important site for primary production — the conversion of carbon dioxide from a gas into organic carbon. Carbon dioxide plays an important role in determining the pH of ocean water. Over the last hundred years the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have increased, leading to changes in the chemistry of the ocean. As time progresses it is becoming more acidic. National Geographic has done research on…
to lower levels of the waters pH, resulting in harm to the aquatic life that inhabits the waters. This experiment, unlike others, focuses on the long-term effects that ocean acidification will have on the coral reefs. The study took place near cool volcanic seeps near the waters of Papua New Guinea on three tropical coral reefs that housed numerous species and organisms. The most ideal coral reef was the “control sight” that was tested: with low CO2 level and a pH of 8.1: it contained very…
higher the pH and the greater difference in colour. A discrepancy in the results is that even though each compound making up DeWitt’s antacid powder had a higher reading pH than the one in Nancy’s Home Remedy, more of DeWitt’s was needed to…
acetate used for the preparation of nanoparticles ZnO and sodium hydroxide were purchased from Biotech laboratory chemicals company. Ethyl alcohol was purchased from ADWIC company. Dilute solutions of HNO3 and NaOH (BDH) were prepared to control the pH during the experiments.
Fig. 1Chemical Structure of (a) Congo Red and (b) Methylene blue dye.
Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles (Adsorbent)
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was obtained by co-precipitation method as in the following procedure: a…