the home to many known and unknown organisms. The first few meters of the ocean are an important site for primary production — the conversion of carbon dioxide from a gas into organic carbon. Carbon dioxide plays an important role in determining the pH of ocean water. Over the last hundred years the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have increased, leading to changes in the chemistry of the ocean. As time progresses it is becoming more acidic. National Geographic has done research on…
In this experiment, the goal was to isolate an organic substance. Using extraction, a basic, acidic, and neutral substance was expected to be extracted from the original unknown compound.
Extraction is a process that allows the separation of substances that were previously mixed together through the use of a solvent1. This can be useful in situations where the substance has both the desired product and undesired byproducts in it. In order for extraction to work, the solvent must…
Honors Chemistry Period 5 Group: 22
Topic: Dissolving Alka-Seltzer in Different Liquids
Due Date: September 30, 2016
(2) Background Research
The topic of this experiment is investigating and researching whether different properties in different types of liquids affect the amount of time it takes for an Alka-Seltzer to dissolve. The independent variable would be the amount of liquid being used to dissolve the Alka-Seltzer pill. The dependent variable would be the amount of…
it ionized into gibberellin and H+ ions. Buffered and unbuffered gibberellic acid 5000 mg/L stock solutions were used for spiking exposure jars. The buffered stock solutions were buffered with sodium bicarbonate until the solution reached a neutral pH. Glass jars were filled with moderately hard water and spiked with the appropriate amount of the gibberellic acid 5000 mg/L stock solution to total 100 mL. As an example, the 625 mg/L concentration had 12.5 mL of gibberellic acid 5000 mg/L stock…
Using the Flinn Scientific Inc Thermometer, the starting temperature of the water was recorded. One strip of the Hydroin Paper pH Level Strips was selected and placed into the water. Once the paper was placed in the water, the color of the paper strip was compared to the pH level chart and the pH level of the paper was recorded. One sheet of the Kroger Home Sense Paper Towels was folded up to cover the surface of the Veritas Electronic Balance Scale. After placing…
calculate the pH based on the ratio of acid to conjugate base, or calculate the ratio given the pH and pKa value.
Finding charge on a protonated amine:
The pKa value given for the amino group on any amino acid specifically refers to the equilibrium between the protonated positive nitrogen and deprotonated neutral nitrogen. You’ll never see a neutral nitrogen deprotonated to form a negative on an amino acid.
The pKa of the protonated methylamine conjugate acid is like this: at physiological pH,…
• What are the strategic choices available?
Biocon India Group is a Bangalore-based organization that began in 1978 with the enzyme business. An enzyme, by the way, is a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. That said, the Biocon India realized that growth is imminent and various strategic choices are available. The first strategic choice available to Managing Director, Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw’s Biocon India is expansion…
The results obtained were statistically analyzed using the Fishers exact test.
Table 1: Comparison of microbial growth between different groups
Sodium Hypochloride Total Fishers exact test
Endovac Laser Control p-value
No Growth 5(50.0%) 8(80.0%) 0 15(37.5%) <0.001*
<103 5(50.0%) 2(20.0%) 0 7(17.5%)
103 – 108 0 0 0 8(20.0%)
>108 0 0 10(100.0%) 10(25.0%)
Total 10 10 10 40(100.0%)
*p<0.05 statistically significant
p>0.05 non significant, NS
Amongst the 10…
Original Synthesis of Cadmium Nitrate Tetra-Hydrate
Cadmium nitrate tetra-Hydrate is an inorganic compound from the family of compounds with the general formula Cd (NO3)2.XH20, where X=4, hence the molecule has four molecules of water of crystallization in its structure. It exists as a salt but in its anhydrous state, it is known to be a volatile substance. It is a colorless substance as are all the compounds in the family of cadmium nitrates. Cadmium…
A pressure vs. Volume analysis was done to determine the bubble points for Oil A, Oil B and water, with CO2
Represented in Fig. 7 below, the Pressure vs. Volume behavior of Oil A is displayed, the graph is separated into two different sections as Oil A transitions from a single phase fluid to a two phase fluid, the transition occurs at 800 psi which represents the bubble point for Oil A.
Fig XX. Pressure vs. Volume Oil A
Analysis was done on the relationship between…