Shiga toxin

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  • Fast Food Nation Book Review

    In the 2001 nonfiction book Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser unmasks the reality behind fast food industries by pointing out some of the consequences such as the change it has caused to several cities, deathly illnesses, and the gap between the rich and the poor; his purpose is to convince people to make the right decisions on their own (276). In chapter nine, Schlosser illustrates how some of the deadly diseases such as E. coli 0157:H7, foodborne pathogens, microbes, and Salmonella are spread primarily from a percentage of fecal material that is found within meat (197). He explains how this has been caused by company inspectors that were allowing the shipment of beef contaminated with fecal material, metal shavings, and hair (207). He then concludes by mentioning that several employers have been videotaped putting spit, urine, picking their noses, and flicking their cigarettes into meals (222). By pointing these factors out, Schlosser effectively appeals to logos and pathos by not just providing real statistics, but also purposely creating a doubt, disgust, and fear towards meat; this strategy persuades parents to stop feeding meat to their children. Schlosser uses stats logically to inform the world what is really going on but adds pathos to make parents realize that they are putting their children at risk to many diseases by feeding them meat. He points out, “Every day in the United States, roughly 200,000 are sickened by a foodborne disease, 900 are hospitalized, and…

    Words: 1097 - Pages: 5
  • Vulnificus Research Paper

    depends on the presence of these three virulence factors. Virulent forms are almost always encapsulated, serum resistant, and possessing the ability to acquire iron from iron-saturated transferrin, while avirulent variants lack these characteristics [29]. After the organism has entered the host and evaded host defenses, the organism replicates and produces toxins. These toxins as well as the organism’s pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are known as the damage-causing virulence…

    Words: 842 - Pages: 4
  • Botox-A Synthesis

    Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin Type A Introduction Botulinum toxin was first identified as a cause of food poisoning over 100 years ago (Carruthers and Carruthers, 2009). Since then, there has been an identification of seven different serotypes labeled A-G; all produced by different strains of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum (Hurkadle et al., 2012). Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the main and most well-studied serotype that is used in cosmetic (Hurkadle et al., 2012). The BTX-A can be…

    Words: 2173 - Pages: 9
  • Bacillus Cereus Lab Report Answers

    Bacillus anthracis i. Bacillus anthracis is able to defend itself against phagocytosis because of its outer shell made out of poly-D-glutamic acid. This shell allows the bacteria to go through the body since the immune system does not register it as a harmful substance and protects the inner components of the bacteria (Mogridge 2007). ii. Anthrax toxin contains the protective antigen, edema factor, and the lethal factor. This combination allows the toxin to effectively attach and invade…

    Words: 1479 - Pages: 6
  • Botulinum Neurotoxin Research Paper

     What is botox Botulinum neurotoxin is produced naturally by Clostridium botulinum, a gram positive spore forming bacteria. It has eight different serotypes named Type A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F and G. Botulinum toxin type A is the most powerful and longest acting of all and used widely for therapeutic purpose. It consists of two polypeptide chains : a heavy chain and a light chain linked together by a disulphide bond. It is synthesized in an inactive single peptide chain with a molecular mass of…

    Words: 702 - Pages: 3
  • Migraine Headache Research Paper

    cause tension headaches and it is stress. Only 3% of the US population suffer from this unpleasant chronic headache. Many people can 't dissociated the difference between migraines and tension headaches. Migraines tend to interfere with the nervous system affected the site, causing regurgitation and nausea. Tension headaches usually don 't associate with that type of interference. Not saying tension headaches are less harmful but episodic tension headaches can lead to migraines. Adding…

    Words: 1847 - Pages: 7
  • Botulism Research Paper

    in humans known as botulism (Smith and Sugiyama, 1988). It produces a potent neurotoxin called botulinum toxin that causes botulism or foodborne botulism. The spores are heat resistant and can survive in foods that are incorrectly or poorly processed (FDA). There are seven recognized types of botulism (A-G) but only A, B, E, and F cause human botulism (FDA). The first case of foodborne botulism was in Ellezellesin, Belgium in December 14, 1895. Thirty-four musicians had a meal at a local inn…

    Words: 1305 - Pages: 6
  • Clostridium Botulinum Lab Report

    reproduce by binary fission. It belongs to Kingdom Bacteria because it has peptidoglycan in its cell wall. It is unicellular and lack nucleus. It is obligate anaerobe as well as have ability to produce by spore so it falls under Phylum Firmicutes. It is classified in class Clostridia and further in order Clostridiales due to its spore forming ability. It is in Genus Clostridium because of being gram positive rod shaped(bacillus). It is originally founded in blood sausage and Latin word for…

    Words: 1229 - Pages: 5
  • Bacillus Subtilis Research Paper

    One possible scenario for the transfer of the toxin-coregulated pilus to B. subtilis is the fertilization of crops using human waste. Waste contaminated with V. cholerae cells could be used to fertilize crops that have B. subtilis growing on their roots, acting as an anti-fungal. Since V. cholerae are gram-negative, they would be unable to produce a spore in the event of a lack of resources, leading to the lysis of the cells. This would release the genetic material of V. cholerae, perhaps with…

    Words: 1330 - Pages: 6
  • Foodborne Illness In Leafy Greens: A Case Study

    tracts of some mammals, unpasteurized apple juice or cider, uncooked fruits and vegetables, and person-to-person contact (DOHDC 2014). E. coli causes foodborne infection which establishes the toxin inside the body (USDHHS 2014). Many other common bacteria that cause foodborne infections include Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Listeria monocytogenes (SFDPH 2014). Foodborne intoxication is different from foodborne infection because the toxin grows and multiplies on the food prior to…

    Words: 1537 - Pages: 7
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