Serotonin transporter

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  • Depression And Anxiety Disorders: A Literature Review

    becomes increasingly difficult. It also incldes feeling restlessness, easily fatigued, concentration diminished, irritable, muscle tension and sleep disturbance. (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2000). Most people that experience negative life events do not always develop depression or anxiety (Brown, Bifulco, & Harris, 1987) for this reason there is strong evidence to suggest that some may be susceptible. Studies have shown biological roots, Caspi et al, 20003 discovered a polymorphism in the Serotonin transporter region (5-HTT). There are several polymorphisms in this gene, (Peterson et al., 2012), however, the most investigated candidate gene is the 5-HTTLPR. The gene consists of a long “L,” and “S” allele. Evidence suggests that the L allele has a higher serotonin uptake capacity than the S allele, and appears in variations of LL, LS or SS. Individual that carry the S allele have been found to show lower levels of serotonin thus experiencing higher risk of stress sensitivity. These results have been found in studies which have replicated it, Caspi, Hariri, Holmes, Uher, & Moffitt, (2010); Uher & McGuffin, (2008), Aslund et al., (2009); Benjet, Thompson, & Gotlib, (2010); Chipman et al., (2007); Eley et al., (2004); Uddin et al., (2010). When negative events happen combined with the genetic disposition, the body ability to cope with elicited stress alters the functions of the autonomic nerves that synchronize to the Central Nervous…

    Words: 1012 - Pages: 4
  • Losing A Parent Effect

    By using observational and experimental methods we have evidence that variation in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene changes a persons stress response to their environment (Losada, Wei, Aberg, Sjoholm, Lavebratt, Forsell, 2013, p. 216). Many studies have tested the hypothesis that variation in the 5-HTT is associated with depression given exposure to stressful events. The study done on the effect of the serotonin transporter showed “the occurrence of depression was 1.5 fold higher among…

    Words: 1722 - Pages: 7
  • Adderall: A Case Study

    Amphetamines are characterized as dopamine releasers that elevate levels of dopamine in the synaptic cleft, the space between neurons at a nerve synapse, by four distinct mechanisms. The primary mechanism involves amphetamine acting as a substrate for dopamine transporters. The transporters are responsible for pumping dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into the cytoplasm of presynaptic neurons. The binding of amphetamines to dopamine transporters, inhibit dopamine uptake resulting in a…

    Words: 819 - Pages: 4
  • Modafinil Essay

    allergic reactions. Some of the unknown side effects include serious skin reaction, e.g., Stevens-Johnson, psychosis, mania, and hallucinations (Dickman, 2010). Drug interaction: Modafinil is metabolized by CYP3A4 and is also has an inhibitory effect of the enzyme CYP2C19. It is weak inducer of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and weak inhibitor of CYP2C9. The metabolism of SSRIs and TCAs via CYP2C19 become more important if patient has deficient of CYP2D6. As a result, lower doses of the antidepressants may…

    Words: 1615 - Pages: 7
  • Sa2 Case Study

    Optogenetic stimulation of LH neurons expressing vesicular GABA transporter (LHVGat ; putative GABA neurons) induces feeding and optical self-stimulation, whereas selective ablation of these neurons reduces feeding, body weight gain, and motivation to obtain palatable reward124. VTA MC3R-GABA may decrease feeding and/or food reward by direct inhibition of LHVgat neurons. Additionally, VTA MC3R expressing neurons may affect feeding and food reward by indirect action on LH GABA neurons.…

    Words: 736 - Pages: 3
  • Ecstasy Research Paper

    referred to taking two are more ecstasy pills at one time and boosting occurs when taking other substances with ecstasy to make the drug more potent and heightens the effects. Once the drug reaches the brain, it creates a chemical imbalance in the brain. The affected chemicals are: serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Serotonin is the main chemical that causes the effects of the brain and body after the consumption of MDMA. “MDMA causes these neurotransmitters to be released from their…

    Words: 1503 - Pages: 7
  • Essay On Self Stigma

    Stigmas almost always carry negative, life changing effects. In regards to mental illness, the stigma that surrounds it can prevent an individual from living their life the way it deserves to be lived, and from seeking the treatment that could potentially help these individuals suffering from mental illness in huge, positive ways. Recent studies have shed a light on a person’s own self-stigma may have worse effects than the stigma that they would face out in society. The media gives off an…

    Words: 1203 - Pages: 5
  • Bupropion Case Studies

    from depression tend to have an emotional flooding. The monoamine hypothesis was first introduced during the 1950s and researchers found that the level of serotonin in the brain might be related to the etiology of mood disorders (Hirschfeld, 2000). Over more than three…

    Words: 1395 - Pages: 6
  • Informative Speech On Ecstasy

    room. Intensify you club experience with 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or what is better known as ecstasy. Let’s get down to business and talk about the popularity of this drug, along with its destructive nature. Zooming into the brain, neurons release chemical substances that are called neurotransmitters. These chemicals are responsible for daily life and basic bodily functions. Ecstasy primarily targets many parts of the brain that contain the neurotransmitter called serotonin.…

    Words: 721 - Pages: 3
  • Hallucinogenic Drugs Are Bad

    recorded the symptoms of the drug and later spent the rest of his life dedicating his life to the study of this drug. Albert believed that it could be used in therapy sessions. LSD-25 is made from a fungus on that grows on rye or wheat called ergot and this fungus is believed to be the cause of the salem witch trials in 1963. There are many theories on how hallucinogens work on the human brain. The best one is that the chemical structures of these drugs can fit with our serotonin receptors and…

    Words: 1426 - Pages: 6
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