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    Essay On Deep Sea Mining

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    Deep sea mining is a fairly new issue within the scientific community only being utilized in mineral collecting for the past two decades (Theil). Although this action is fairly new, it still can have devastating effects on ecosystems, especially the seafloor. “Because of the high demand for minerals and metals for making technological items, this new way of mining has gathered a lot of attention in the last five years. Three forms of deep-sea mineral resources have been considered thus far for commercial exploitation: manganese nodule mining on abyssal plains, cobalt-rich crusts on seamounts, and massive polymetallic sulfide deposits at sites of hydrothermal venting” (). Manganese, the most favorable metal, is located on the seafloor of abyssal plains in the form of nodules, polymetallic sulfide deposits are collected near hydrothermal vents, and cobalt-rich crust deposits are located on seamounts, underwater mounts that do not reach the surface of the water. When collecting these polymetallic nodules, ecosystems can be greatly affected in many ways. By scraping the surfaces, these nodules occupy to collect them, some of the only hard stratum supporting the sea floor is removed, leading to the death of any organisms living on or from the sea floor. () goes rather deeply into this issue and states that “this type of mining will remove permanently a major habitat type, causing local extinction of organisms” (). Removing nodules can also lead to the pollution of water around the…

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    In addition, however, Article 5 of Annex III to the Convention sought to give binding quality to certain obligations concerning technology transfer. And, in particular, Article 5(3) of Annex III required each deep^ seabed contractor to make available to both the Enterprise and developing countries involved in seabed mining the requisite technology for their operations which the contractor is legally entitled to transfer. Such technology was to be transferred on a fair and reasonable commercial…

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    1.0 Construction After the submarine cable has been designed inch-perfect, it is the next step where skills of geography are required. The construction of a submarine communications cable is not an easy matter. Furthermore, it is not an inexpensive job too. Skills and knowledge are required by engineers and workers whom are laying down the submarine communications cable. To ensure that the millions of dollars invested on the cable do not go to waste, every single precaution step must be taken…

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    Tsunami Essay

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    The movement of earth's crust is capable of shifting huge volumes of water, then it unleashes great and powerful waves. Among nature's most powerful forces of destruction, these waves are called tsunamis. The Japanese term means "harbour waves". Tsunamis are a series of large ocean waves of extremely long wavelength and a period which is suddenly displaced on a massive scale by an underwater disturbance such as an earthquake occurring on or near the seabed or a volcanic eruption. Tsunamis hit…

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    Bottom trawling is a high-efficiency fishing technique in global coastal fisheries [1], but with negative effects on marine benthos [2]. Bottom trawling affects seabed environments by dragging a net on the seabed and suspending sediments [3]. In addition, this fishing activity threatens marine benthic biodiversity and destroys the structures of benthic ecosystems [4]. Fishers have been concerned with these impacts for 600 years [5]. Over the past half century, the impacts of bottom trawling have…

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    Magna Carta or Mega-Fraud is an interesting phrase. The Magna Carta is a fundamental constitutional document not only to the United Kingdom but also to New Zealand and many other countries that adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931. The Baron 's and King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215, and as such celebrated its 800th Anniversary last year. The formal name for the document is the Magna Carta Liber Tatum which translates to the “Greater Charter of the Liberties.” In 1297 the Manga Carta…

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    experiments. Offshore oil drilling has been a source of gas and oil for years. The offshore oil drilling process is a mechanical process whereby workers drill bores through the seabed; this process occurs in order to search for and extract oil and natural gas (Diamond Offshore, 1). The oil lies in the rock formations existing beneath the seabed. Several countries worldwide depend on it as the source of raw materials for the production of petroleum products. The venture shows through the…

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    North Africa, authorized by their government to attack the shipping of Christian countries. Almost the inhabitan6ts of the village of Baltimore, in Ireland were taken in this way in 1631, and other attacks were launched against coastal villages in Devon and Cornwall. There are no records of how many men, women, and children were enslaved, but it is possible to calculate roughly the number of fresh captives. Many other slaves belonged to private parties. Their treatments and work varied as much…

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    anything. This is surely not the case at all. Oil spills can affect any living thing. It can kill animals and plants. Mainly seagulls, otters, seals, and whales are affect, but not in all cases. In the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989[1] hundreds of bald eagles, which are endangered in the US, were found dead, along with seals, and the usual seagulls. Oil pollutes the water by putting chemicals into it that affect animals. There are hundreds of ships that run…

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    Ocean Waves Essay

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    sitting on the ocean surface, it may appear as if the object is purely moving up and down. Realistically, a circular motion occurs. A careful examination of the motion will show that the object is actually moving up and down, and also back and forth as waves travel past the object. Moreover, this motion varies drastically with the depth of water. The circular trajectory flattens and decreases in size with the increase in depth, until the only motion left is a slight forward and backward…

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