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    Anaesthesia Effect

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    the precordium (upper chest) region of the rat. Retractors or spatulas will be used to increase exposure and visibility inside of the incision and to spread the rib cage. The heart will be exposed with retraction of the rib cage, allowing for the isolation of the region upon which the piezoelectric materials will be placed. Piezoelectric Interaction, Energy Conversion, and Detection Similar to the experiment conducted by Hwang and team in 2014, ECG sensing leads will be placed on both the left ventricle of the heart and on the body of the rat, perhaps the abdomen. The purpose of ECG sensing is to monitor the heart rate by observing the amplitude and frequency of the QRS complex, a series of waves that are characteristic of a singular heartbeat. Since a single heartbeat occurs when the left and right atria contract before the left and right ventricles contract, the piezoelectric interface would need to be placed on either the left or right atrium or the left or right ventricle for standardization across all animals and for proper detection of mechanical vibrational energy by the piezoelectric interface. The piezoelectric device would need to be secured to the region of energy harvesting using a material that also will not block the interaction of the heart with the interface itself. A taught biocompatible mesh could be used to hold the piezoelectric interface in place and directly secured to the heart using a sealant biomaterial such as fibrin glue or matrigel (Lam and Wu…

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    The blood is moved through the pulmonary capillaries and alveoli where it exchanges the CO2 with fresh O2 and then moves out of the lungs via pulmonary veins and moves out of the other chambers of the heart and to the body and once again completes the cycle. It stands to reason that due to the short distance of a trip through the pulmonary system pressure in the lungs would be less than arterial pressure. So imagine if you will that the pathways in the lungs were narrowed and the pressure…

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    Fetal circulation differs greatly from that of a newborn heart. Although, outwardly appearances may seem similar. By taking an internal look we may be able to distinguish four adaptations that fetal hearts undergo while in utero. First, we must understand that the fetus receives all blood and nutrients from the parental placenta. The fetus receives this blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein. This is the first adaptation that we see in the fetal cardiovascular circulatory system.…

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    Natural Cardiac Pacemaker

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    During one year, the heart initiates approximately 32 million heartbeats to pump blood around the body, beating a total of 60-80 times per minute at a normal pace. It is a highly efficient organ and constantly works to keep our blood circulation going and ourselves alive. The high efficiency of the heart pumping system originates in a conductive system, which is linked to the Sinoatrial (S-A) and Atrioventricular (A-V) node. The Sinoatrial node, also known as the natural cardiac pacemaker, is…

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    Congestive Heart Failure

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    Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a progressive and chronic condition that occurs when the heart muscle is weak and unable to pump adequate blood in order to meet the need of the body for blood and oxygen (AHA, 2014). There are two types of Heart failure namely Left sided and right sided heart failure. According to Moore & Roth (2015), left-sided heart failure occurs when the left ventricle failed to pump proficiently. It prevents the body from receiving adequate oxygen-rich blood. The…

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    expected, alterations to the left ventricle are associated with athletic training. LV enlargement and increased wall thickness are typical findings among athletes. In endurance training, LV remodeling results in eccentric hypertrophy, which is an increase chamber dimension with an increase in wall thickness. Strength training results in concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle which is described as thick walls with none or slight dilatation. Out of the two, concentric LVH is more common…

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    Electrocardiogram Lab

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    The chambers include the right and left atrium as well as the right and left ventricle. The atrium receives blood from the venous system while the ventricles pump blood into the arterial system. These pumps are able to provide circulation out to the pulmonary (right pump) and systemic system (left pump). When conducting this lab experiment, it is important to be familiar with an electrocardiogram. An electrocardiogram measures the electrical activity of the heart. The electrocardiogram displays…

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    Data regarding the cardiovascular system of older adults is slightly limited, due to the fact that older people are usually not included in clinical trials. However, enough research has been done to identify common physiological changes in the geriatric cardiovascular system, such as: increased heart weight; decreased number of myocardial cells with enlargement of remaining cells; increased left ventricle wall thickness; increased arterial stiffness; increased elastin levels; increased collagen…

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    cardiac criteria. (A minimum of three major criteria or at one major and three minor criteria). • Major criteria include advanced atrioventricular block, basal thinning of the interventricular septum, cardiac gallium uptake, and left ventricular ejection fraction 40 mg/day of prednisone) compared with those treated with a low dose (35 percent and/or lack of heart failure: • In patients with cardiac sarcoidosis with an inducible ventricular arrhythmia at electrophysiologic study performed for…

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    there can be effects from mechanical ventilation even on patients considered “healthy subjects”. Mechanical ventilation can cause a fall in the aortic flow and systolic blood pressure. Reasons for the fall in the blood pressure include: a decrease in left ventricular preload, a decreased right ventricular preload, an increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PBR), right ventricular afterload, and ventricular interdependence. Aortic pressures in cardiac output decrease at a fast rate during…

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