The terms risks and odds are commonly reported exchangeably as if they describe the same quantity. However, statistically risk and odds have specific meanings and have different calculations, which may misinterpreted the results of a systematic review if ignored.
Risk is a probability; odds on the other hand are chances or a ratio, Probability is the likelihood of an event or outcome to occur in relation to all possible events or outcomes. For example, by flipping a coin, the risk that you will get heads is 1 win out of 2 total possible outcomes or 50%.
Relative risk and also called risk ratio compares risk of an event or exposure with those without exposure, e.g. the relative risk of getting caries for sugar consumers compared to non-sugar consumers. Relative risk depends on the incidence of an event given that we already know the exposure state of its participants. It can…
What is a risk?
What is Absolute and relative risks?
Absolute versus relative risk
Relative risk tells you nothing about actual risk
Keeping a sense of proportion about risk
What is risk?
Simply put, the ‘risk’ of something happening is its chance of taking place.
Absolute and relative risks?
Absolute risk of a disease is your risk of developing the disease over a time period. We all have absolute risks of developing various diseases such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, etc. The same absolute…
or derived? How measured or derived?
Age yes measured
Gender no measured
What statistical measures did they use? They used the relative risk for statistical measurements.
What, if any, variables did they adjust for? Why did they adjust for these variables? Education level, leisure time of physical activity, smoking status and age, serum cholesterol and triglycerides. This occurred because the women who were lost were older.
Review each of the…
compare the risk of bad outcomes in patients receiving the intervention and those receiving the control. The most common methods used in expressing information about treatment options and risk reductions are absolute risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk and relative risk reduction. Absolute risk reduction (ARR) or Risk difference (RD) is the most practical and useful method to interpret research results and is most important in clinical decision making. However, the relative risk and…
The recapitulation is begins at bar 156. Measure 156 to 170 is presents the same things from P in exposition. But at bar 168, the chord changed. The original one is G (V in c minor). But there, it goes to Ab, which is the V in Db. The bar 169 is the tonic in Db and the 170 goes to Bb, which is the V in Eb major. Than, measure 171 to 173 arise a new phrase in Eb major. At the end of the bar 173, it goes to the V of C major, because after that, it’s the transition part, which is start at I in C…
After completing the leadership inventory, I came to find that I had equal amounts of each of the four leadership styles. Personally, I thought my primary leadership style was analytical and my secondary leadership style was supportive. I did not see myself as being directive or adaptive, so I was surprised at the results. By having equal amounts of all four leadership styles, I will be able to use all the different characteristics of these leadership styles to aid in my…
American Overture for Band is a level six, wind band, piece that has been played and enjoyed by advanced high school and university bands. The scoring is dense and somewhat atypical, however. Jenkins includes a sting bass, a cello, three baritone parts, three flute parts, and four clarinet and trombone parts.
Jenkins includes the string bass part because is important to the texture of the piece. The tuba cues, like all the cues in the piece, are “safety doublings” and “should be played only…
CHAPTER TWO - CRITICAL ANALYSIS
2.1 Exploration Of Tonality And The Pentatonic Scale
Blossoms on a Moonlit River has been written in G major, and this is known from an author’s note written above the stave and the key signature (Fig 2a). It has been written with diatonic numerical notation using the numbers 1 to 7, and the number 0 represents a rest. The piece is tonal centred, and relies on a major pentatonic scale consisting of G, A, B, D and E (Fig 2b) and this is close to the western…
IV. Second Movement
The second movement is in a compound ternary form. It is in simple quadruple time in E major with the tempo of Adagio. It is nocturne-like (Zi, 2001, p. 94) and it’s meant to give the audience a peaceful feeling.
Introduction: The opening of the second movement has used muted strings, woodwind, clarinet and bassoon. These instruments slowly modulate from the previous C minor to E major using chromatic notes.
Exposition (A): In preparation for the first theme to…
Two violins, one viola, and a cello played Joseph Haydn’s String Quartet, Op. 76, No.3 (Emperor), II in quadruple meter and in the form of one homophonic theme with four polyphonic variations. The theme is introduced by the entire quartet in an conjunct melody that has three unique phrases. The first phrase, “A”, is the first to be introduced and repeated a second time, “A-A”. Phrase “A” moves smoothly from mid to high in ascending and descending conjunct intervals and is repeated. A second…