Programmed cell death

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    Some experiments were aimed at finding how SOD1 becomes pro-apoptotic (promoting programmed cell death) due to the fact that healthy SOD1 are against programmed cell death (Pasinelli et al. 2004). The pro-apoptotic characteristic of mutant SOD1 is demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The mitochondria inside cells firmly control apoptosis, and the mutant SOD1 that aggregates inside mitochondria triggers the programmed cell death of motor neurons (Pasinelli et al. 2004). One experiment studied proteins that interact with mutant SOD1, specifically Bcl-2 which is anti-apoptotic, in order to explain the apoptotic nature of mutant SOD1 (Pasinelli et al. 2004). The methods that were used involve in vitro approaches and Western blot analysis. The outcomes were that mutant SOD1 and Bcl-2 interact with each other in vivo in the spinal cord, and they both together are pro-apoptotic (Pasinelli et al. 2004). In other words, Bcl-2 was an anti-apoptotic protein when standing alone, and when it directly interacted with mutant SOD1, the protein and the gene convert to pro-apoptosis, or in support of cell death; this could be due to a conformational change in Bcl-2.…

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    Aim: To understand cell control mechanism of a model genetic terminator system and to develop potential termination strategies through computational modelling . Motivation: The aim of IGEM- IISER Pune team is to develop a rapid, cost effective, sensitive and portable device for detection of tuberculosis. We adopt a three component tuberculosis diagnosing device consisting of 1 Hijacking Module which would take over cell cycle control inducing rapid replication 2 Detection…

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    C. Elegans Research Paper

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    knowledge about multicellular organisms since 1960s (8). Genetics and organ development, programmed cell death studies, and describing the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) led to award Noble prizes in physiology for Sydney Brenner, John Sulston and Robert Horvitz, Craig Mello, and Andrew Fire respectively.…

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    motor proteins attached to the vesicles. Microtubules can also expand or shrink in length in order to establish dynamic structures that can efficiently change the internal organization of the cell, and capture organelles through the cytosol. Intermediate filaments are made up of the protein keratin. Their primary function is to strengthen the internal structure of a cell. Microfilaments are the smallest among the three cytoskeletal filaments. They consist of protein actin. Microfilaments are…

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    Necrosis Case Study

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    components into surrounding tissue (121). Key players that help mediate necrosis include ROS, Calcium ions, poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP), and lysosomal proteases (888). PARP is an enzyme that is responsible for repairing DNA damage, such as strand breaks. Cells that have undergone a traumatic cellular insult typically have damaged DNA. PARP will deplete cellular ATP in an attempt to repair the massive damage to DNA. Several proteases are activated by increased cellular calcium ion…

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    Human Cloning Essay

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    with gene modification which occurs when a genetic engineer cuts the gene and replaces some of it with new material. Reproductive cloning happens when a mature somatic cell is removed from an organism, and the DNA is transferred to an egg cell whose DNA has been removed. This is commonly referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer or SCNT. Finally, the egg starts the reproductive process and attaches to the uterus of a female in the same species. This results in a whole organism with the same…

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    the hippocampus region of the brain (Curlik & Shors, 2013, p. 506). 2. This structure most associated with what types of activities? The hippocampus structure is most associated with how one's mental processes respond and adjust to a physical stimuli through learning and behavior (Curlik & Shors, 2013, p. 506). 3. Although most of the new cells die by programmed cell death (apoptosis), the researchers describe that some can be rescued. How does this rescuing occur? Curlik and Shors (2013)…

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    Jin Theory Of Aging Paper

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    Programmed longevity declares that aging results as certain genes in the body turn on and off in patterns. Endocrine theory theorizes aging to be a result of hormonal regulations, and Jin’s article states that recent studies support this theory. The last subcategory, immunological theory, explains aging occurs because the immune system is programmed to decline as time goes on. This event leaves the body more susceptible to disease and cellular death. Jin states that the immune system’s…

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    What Is Mitochondria?

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    Mitochondria are filamentous organelles of all aerobic cells of higher animals and plants and also certain microorganism like protozoa. Studies show that that mitochondria are the direct descendants of a bacterial endosymbiont that became established at an early stage in a nucleus-containing host cell (Gray et al., 1999). Mitochondria are surrounded by a double-membrane system, consisting of inner and outer mitochondrial membranes separated by an intermembrane space. (Cooper, 2000). It has the…

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    In Aristotle’s view, everything in this world can be categorized. Living beings include plants and animal. The plant has nutritive soul and the animal process both nutritive soul and perceptive soul. If we discuss animal further, we can divide animal into rational animal, which is human, and non-rational animal. The essential feature of “being an animal” is perception. From the Aristotle Introductory Reading: “413b2: What makes something an animal is primarily perception.” Perception is…

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