Importance Of Polysaccharides In Apple Pomace
cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. It also contains numerous phytochemicals, such as simple sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose), pectin, natural antioxidants such as flavanols (catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins), flavonols, hydroxycinnamates and dihydrochalcones, as well as small amount of proteins, minerals, and vitamins4, 8-9.
More than 1.3 million tons of apple pomace are produced per year and about $10 million was spent annually on the disposal of apple pomace solely in the United States10. It is mostly used for direct disposal to soil in a landfill, the pectin extraction as gelling agent, stabilizer, and source of dietary fiber11. Despite of that, disposing a huge amount of remaining apple pomace represents a serious environmental problem. Many attempts have been made to utilize apple pomace as nutritionally rich by products. So far, apple pomace have been studied for the production of value added products such as organic acids, enzymes, single cell proteins, low alcoholic drinks, ethanol, biogas, pigment and baker’s yeast12-20.
In particular, apple pomace is characterized by a high content of dietary fibers, with a well-balanced proportion between soluble and insoluble fraction21. The content of dietary fiber is over 50% (dry base) on average8, 22-23. Dietary fiber compositions inside apple pomace are mainly cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. The consumption of dietary fibers has been associated with several metabolic processes. Numerous health benefits…