Oxidative stress

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    10/11/15 Nick Roberts Period 6 Cellular Respiration Aerobic cellular respiration is a process in which our cells get energy in the form of ATP. This process has 3 major steps in order to function properly. These steps are Glycolysis, Citric Acid or Krebs Cycle, and the electric transport state. These steps each have an important role in our cells respiration cycle. The first step in the cycle is called Glycolysis. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol or cytoplasm of a cell. For…

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    31 - Describe the biochemistry of the Cori cycle and the glucose–alanine cycle. How are they regulated and under what physiological conditions are they activated? The Cori cycle and glucose-alanine cycle are two mechanisms that involve cycling of nutrients between the liver and muscle. Lactate and alanine are two glucogenic molecules that are each converted to pyruvate via a series of enzymatic reactions in the liver to ultimately be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis and transported…

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    What´s Mitochondria

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    organelles to the Nuclear DNA of the eukaryotes which resulted them being dependent of the cell they live in This endosymbiosis is very crucial for eukaryotes survival since mitochondria produce the energy needed for the cell to survive through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the electron transport chain (ETC). Mitochondria is the power house where the OXPHOS takes place. It is more exposed to the toxic products of this process, like the reactive oxygen species(ROS) than any other…

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    Demonstration of Cellular Respiration Inside Lima Beans Cells in Vitro Purpose: Cellular respiration is a series of metabolic reactions that take place in the mitochondria and produce chemical energy in the form of ATP by the breakdown of food molecules.There are three processes involved in cellular respiration; glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. During this processes, glucose is oxidized by a series of redox reactions and its electrons and hydrogen ions are donated…

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    Hydroxynitrite Lab Report

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    1. Introduction Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNL, EC 4.1.2.x) are enzymes which mediate the release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and aldehyde or ketone from cyanohydrins [1]. These HNL catalyse enantioselective synthesis and cleavage of cyanohydrins [2]. The cyanohydrins and their derivatives are finding wide applications in industries like pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and cosmetics since these can be readily converted into other important molecules like α-hydroxy carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy ketones…

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    Sodium Azide There is perhaps not a lot known about this chemical and what it can do to/for people. One important aspect is to know what the chemical is made of, doing so will give someone a general look into its makeup. Secondly, “What is something we use this chemical for in everyday life”. Lastly, “How does this affect our cell breathing process?” From these topics, one can gather a general sense of what this substance does and whether or not it should be strayed away from. Of course it…

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    actions: growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, reproduction. The nuclei also will pellet after the 1st low speed of the centrifugation, which can be seen under a microscope. Mitochondria has a low dense organelle that has a double membrane, allowing oxidative phosphorylation. Generates the majority of adenosine triphosphate known as ATP, for energy. The pellet will be formed after the 2nd centrifugation; the absorbance measured of the mitochondria will be low. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is…

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    Glycolysis Lab Report

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    1. Glycolysis a. Indicate at what stage the compound is officially no longer a sugar, and why? The compound is no longer a sugar is at stage five. This is because the fructose 1,6 bisphosphate in stage four, breaks down from a six carbon sugar to two, three carbon molecules. The first one being dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and the other being glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). b. Indicate how the glucose enters the cell The glucose enters the cell through facilitated diffusion because…

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    breakdown is captured by the electron carriers, which is any of various molecules, such as NAD+ and FAD, which accept one or two electrons from one molecule and donate them to another and eventually used to generate a large amount of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative Phosphorylation is the process that uses energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain. An electron transport chain is a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons down a series…

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    controlled way to go to the matrix of a mitochondria. ATP synthase makes ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). In a process called oxidative phosphorylation, ATP is formed as a result of transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to O2 by a series of electron carriers. Together, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation makes ATP in aerobic metabolism (Sanders,…

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