Oxidative stress

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    Riboflavin Research Paper

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    Riboflavin contains a tricyclic dimethyl-isoalloxazine ring (Flavin Nucleus) that is conjugated to a 1-Carbon ribityl, an alcohol derived from pentose sugar D-ribose, is attached at the 9 position of isoalloxazine nucleus as shown in Figure 1. The metabolically active coenzymes of riboflavin are riboflavin -5-phosphate or Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that participate in many vital oxidation reduction processes. Catalytic sites of some enzymes are covalently…

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    Atp Research Paper

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    nucleotide and consists of adenine, a ribose sugar and a triphosphate unit. ATP is “an energy-rich molecule because its triphosphate unit contains two phosphoanhydride bonds” and, a significant amount of energy is released when these bonds are broken1. Oxidative phosphorylation is a metabolic pathway whereby mitochondria in living cells generate ATP from the oxidation of nutrients. This process involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 generated from glycolysis and the citric acid…

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    Making ATP from Free fatty Acids:- The other two energy substrates, FFAs and AAs, bypass glycolysis and ultimately enter the TCA cycle/oxidative phosphorylation as pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or different components of the TCA cycle. FFAs are released from adipose tissue by lipolysis and circulate in blood bound to serum albumin. Transport proteins then translocate FFAs into cells. FFAs are metabolized in mitochondria by the repetitive, cyclic process of β oxidation. This requires the transport of…

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    Fermentation Lab Report

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    glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. Both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are anaerobic pathways which means that oxygen is not need to form energy. However the electron transport chain is aerobic and that is due to the oxidative phosphorylation were with the help of oxygen molecules ATP molecules are produced. Fermentation is a reaction that occurs when oxygen is not present or very restricted. In the case of bakers…

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    carbon dioxide (CO2), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and hydrogen ions. The citric acid cycle links glycolysis which produces pyruvate from glucose and oxidative phosphorylation which generates ATP which is used as energy for metabolic processes. The citric acid cycle is catabolic and anabolic. Fuel molecules are catabolised (broken down) to generate ATP. Anabolism is where molecules such as amino…

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    There's various types of ways an organism can live, one being autotrophic. Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from living beings. They're the producers of the biosphere because they can release organic molecules. Most autotrophs get their energy from photosynthesis. They store their chemical energy in carbohydrate food molecules that they build themselves. Autotrophs are the ultimate source of organic compounds producing organic molecules and that's the direct link…

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    UGT1A4 Research Paper

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    What is UGT1A4? The majority of drugs are metabolized to form compounds that are more polar in structure than their parental precursors. The ultimate goal is to 1) increase the hydrophilicity of the presented compounds along with their molecular weight, 2) inactivate their biological effects and 3) facilitate their efflux from the cells, subsequently followed by excretion into bile or urine1. The metabolic enzymes in charge of this process are traditionally organized into two separate…

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    Life is full of stress. According to Daniel Kirsch, Ph.D., president of the American Institute of stress, stress includes all psychological, physiological, and behaviors that how people react to their difficult situations (Lifer, 2013). There are many reasons that cause stress: work pressures, family issues, exams, …and everyone copes with stress differently, so the impacts of that are not the same for anyone as well. However, not all stresses are unhealthy. In some ways, stress brings many…

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    Chloroplast Research Paper

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    Chloroplast are found in plants, they are responsible for the metabolism of energy to produce food for plants by breaking down Carbon dioxide, water and sunlight through a process called Photosynthesis. Once Carbon Dioxide enters a plant through stomata pores in a plant, water is absorbed through the roots of a plant and sunlight captured by chlorophyll pigments inside the chloroplast which is actually inside the thylakoids. It 's the russian doll complex., it is within the chloroplast that…

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    Mitochondria Experiment

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    The mitochondrion is an organelle which produces ATP or energy for all cells. The ATP produced by the mitochondria can be used to measure certain physical activities of fruit flies. In this experiment the development, climbing, flight, and in vitro activity of Drosophilia Melanogaster flies were tested. Three different strands of flies were used. One strand was the wild-type (wt) fly, which had normal mitochondria without any mutations. Another stand was the W501 strain (hybrid) which had…

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