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    Norman Naimark argues in Stalin’s Genocides that the dekulakization, the Holodomor, attacks on enemy nationalities, and the purges of 1937-38 purges should all be classified as the “crime of crimes”: genocide. Currently the four events are simply viewed as massacres or mass killings of a gargantuan scale. He goes further to assert that it was Stalin alone who facilitated and enabled these genocides to occur. By reclassifying them as genocide, Naimark hopes that Stalin’s crimes will finally get the recognition and proper classification that they deserve. The text focuses on these four key examples to prove this point, however, Naimark also insists that the four cases should be seen collectively as one interrelated genocide under the reign of Stalin. At the same time, Stalin’s Genocides admits that not every mass murder presented or discussed necessarily constitutes a genocide individually. Naimark understands that this is a difficult stance to take, and forewarns that “In short, there are scholarly dangers in conflating these episodes of mass killing, but also in separating them too rigidly.” By saying this, Naimark means that if viewed completely individually they cannot clearly constitute genocide, but also that combining every mass killing into a simple frame is a grave misrepresentation. Naimark prefaces his argument that Stalin’s actions constitute genocide by arguing that the current definition of genocide is tainted by Soviet influence, and does not reflect its true…

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    colonels in the Red Army. The NKVD was a major force during the Purges, they were the ones who rounded up and executed those who were determined to be enemies of the people. One of the reasons that the NKVD was so successful was their ability to infiltrate regular Russian society, children in schools were encouraged by their teachers to turn in their parents if they heard any negative talk of Stalin or the Russian government. They also infiltrated many of the workplaces in Russia and encouraged…

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    Between Shades of Gray centers in on the Vilkas family from Lithuania, who were facing the repercussions of Joseph Stalin’s reign during World War II. From around 1941 to the early 1950’s they fell victim to three obstacles: Stalin’s purges, the NKVD in labor camps, and education. All three were significant obstacles because they caused political and social impacts, but none were as detrimental as the NKVD and the labor camps. Stalin sent NKVD officers to purge homes, evacuate or arrest the…

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    There was one group who were sent to the Arctic Circle. They were sent there to die slowly of the freezing temperature. The “criminal” were given nothing for survival, they had to use their resources to survive. They had to work hard to be able to build shelters, and to be able to survive the abominable snowstorms located in the Arctic Circle. “That night, September 26, the first snowstorm arrived. It lasted two days. The wind and snow bellowed and blew through the cracks in our jurta. The…

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    due to the situations and circumstances they experience. In Ruta Sepetys Between Shades of Gray the loss of innocence is something that the characters undergo, specifically Lina, the main protagonist, and the other prisoners taken by the NKVD. First not, after Lina and her family as well as the other people taken by the NKVD (the secret police), they immediately gets witnessed to violence and fear by the threats from the NKVD and the fears from the other stolen passengers. Secondly, Lina and the…

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    most important things together. Before the officers came back into Lina’s house, her mother was breaking all of her favorite cups and dishes. The officers soon came in and were ready to take the family away. As the NKVD (the…

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    Joseph Stalin Show Trial

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    closed trials. These took place in Moscow, in front of a series of judges, the only real evidence presented was so called “Confessions” from the defendants. The first show trial was held August 1936, 18 people were accused of crimes such as the assassination of a Russian Officer or forming a terrorist organization. After a long wait the court ordered the defendants executions when they were found guilty on August 24, 1936. The second one happened shortly after in January 1937. The third show…

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    between shades of gray essay Sacrifice is the act of giving up something for another's benefit. Ruta Sepetys is the author of the novel, Between Shades of Gray, she creates historical fiction that contains many examples of sacrifice. This essay will focus on the various cases of sacrifice evident in each of the three sections of the novel entitled Thieves and Prostitutes, Maps and Snakes, and Ice and Ashes. The theme of sacrifice is apparent early in the novel. During the end of chapter seven,…

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    My book was” Between Shades of Gray” by Ruta Sepetys. Some of the characters are Lina, Jonas, Mother, Papa, Andrius, Janina, “The Bald Man”, and Chief Kretkzy. Lina is a fifteen turning sixteen year old girl from Lithuania, who loves to draw. Jonas and Mother are her brother and mother.Papa isn’t mentioned much. That is because he has already been taken by the NKVD, which is Russian soldiers. Kind of like the Nazis. Andrius is Lina’s love interest.Janina is a young girl. The author doesn’t…

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    This quotation utilizes the literary device of rhetorical question. The rhetorical question in this quote is “have you ever wondered what a human life is worth?” This question is posed to the reader, who obviously can’t actually respond to Lina. Instead of being answerable, the question serves to get the reader to consider how much value is actually placed on the lives of the Lithuanian deportees in the novel. The blunt statement of Jonas’s worth being equal to that of a pocket watch sets the…

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