bacteria Clostridium botulinum (Hurkadle et al., 2012). Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the main and most well-studied serotype that is used in cosmetic (Hurkadle et al., 2012). The BTX-A can be purified and isolated from fermented C. botulinum to be used as botox (Hurkadle et al., 2012). Botox has no preservatives and is a stable, sterile, vacuum-dried powder diluted with saline solution (Hurkadle et al., 2012). BTX-A is well known to correct and/or reverse the physical effects of aging and help reduce the appearance of wrinkles through reversible paralysis of the treated muscle (Hexsel et al., 2011). BTX-A has been approved in more than 75 countries for use in the cosmetic industry (Carruthers and Carruthers, 2009). It can be used to treat a variety of hyperkinetic facial lines such as crow’s feet, horizontal forehead lines and glabellar rhytides in the upper face and folds and lines in the lower face and neck (Carruthers and Carruthers, 2009).
The main reason why people decide to get botox injection is due to aging and the appearance of wrinkles. The human skin will undergo changes due to increasing age and with increasing exposure to external factors such as ultraviolet radiation and smoking (Naylor et al., 2011). Increase in age will lead to the appearance of fine wrinkles and reduce elasticity, whereas exposure to external factors will lead to the development of deep wrinkles and loss of elasticity (Naylor et al., 2011). Not only there will be…
The two main neck muscles are the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius, and are responsible for
the gross motor movement in the muscular system of the head, neck and shoulders.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle is a paired muscle, located at the front and on each side of the
neck. It is one of the largest and most superficial cervical muscles. The primary actions of the
muscle are rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion of the neck.
The trapezius is one of the biggest shoulder and…
Introduction Head butting a soccer ball may cause injuries. Cervical spinal injuries are usually categorized as a head and neck injury and their incidence varies from 4 to 22% (Kartal, Yiliran, Senkoylu,& Korkusuz 2004). Severe muscle spasms, spinal cord injuries, herniation of the disc and fracture dislocation are listed as acute injuries to the cervical spine in soccer (Kartal et al., 2004). Kartal et al. (2004) hypothesized that recurrent trauma from head butting a soccer ball may case…
nodding up and down for yes or shaking your head side to side for no. Torticollis can cause someone to constantly face the floor o tilt their head and put strain on the neck if the person tries to look straight. The Birmingham Mummy from the Graeco-Roman period is the first finding of torticollis. He was hit in some tissue around the neck by an arrow. The wound got infected amd caused a muscle spasm that then caused the torticollis which wasn’t fixed before he was mummified. Torticollis is just…
Tips For Neck Pain Relief
Neck pain is a fairly common complaint that has a variety of causes. It can result from muscle strain, an injury, or a medical condition. If you have severe pain or chronic pain, then you'll want to see your doctor for an evaluation. Here are some things that might help with your neck pain.
Uncover The Cause
Try to figure out what's causing the pain so you can stop the activity. It might be from carrying a heavy bag on one shoulder or the way you position your head…
B. Definition of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)
C. Common theories of the causes of congenital muscular torticollis
D. Conditions CMT can result in
A. Postural torticollis
B. Muscular torticollis
C. Sternocleidomastoid mass
A. Physical Therapy
C. Botulinum Injections (Botox)
The sternocleidomastoid is a superficial muscle in the cervical region. It has two heads, the sternal head and the clavicular…
brachii-found in the arm with two heads, and is parallel with the body. "At the point when a parallel muscle contracts, it abbreviates and gets bigger in measurement".
Extensor digitorum-a lower arm muscle that develops the finger joints is uni-pennate.
Flexor carpi Muscles-Allows the wrist to flex and snatch, it is a shaft muscle shape with a long ligament.
Transversus abdominis-its umbrella molded and is for stance arrangement and is situated in the stomach.
Rectus femoris-Is the muscle that…
The head and neck are part of the body that is very important integrating several systems. A lot of vital activities like eating, drinking, seeing, hearing and breathing are done through the head structures. When the nurse assess those the head and the neck it is s assessing several systems at the same time. The eyes are located in the orbital cavities of the skull is an important part of the head and its function is essential to perform different activities. The ears are one of the structures…
of the powerful muscles that help move the shoulder and forearm, the elbow, are attached to the Humerus. The Humerus is very essential to a variety of movements of the arm, including throwing, lifting, and even writing.
0:30-1:00 Demonstrate all parts of the humerus bone. There are many parts of the Humerus including the head, greater and lesser tubercles, Anatomical and surgical necks, Intertubercular sulcus, Radial groove, Deltoid tuberosity, medial and lateral supracondylar ridge, Radial…
affect the bones in the neck (cervical spine) and the soft tissues in the neck. A strain is when muscles or tissues (tendons) that connect muscles to bones stretch or tear. A sprain is when the tissues (ligaments) that connect bones stretch or tear. Cervical strains and sprains usually happen because of "whiplash" injuries. Whiplash is when the neck is forcefully whipped backward or forward.
This condition can range from mild to severe. Severe injuries can damage the spinal cord and affect the…