that the soul is
immortal and survives the body’s death. Without a defense of this controversial assumption, the
argument fails to prove its point.
Socrates argues that philosophers should not fear and resent death; instead they should
cheerfully look forward to it. His argument is as follows:
(1) Death is the separation of the soul from the body.
(2) Philosophy is practice at and training for the separation of the soul from the body.
(3) Therefore, philosophy is practice at and training for death.
(4) But it is absurd to resent and fear what one has long practiced at and trained for.
Therefore, it is absurd for philosophers to resent and fear death.
Although the argument does not obviously have a canonically valid form (e.g. modus ponens,
modus tollens, etc.), nevertheless considered on its own it appears to be valid: it is hard to see
how the premises could be true and the conclusion false. Considered in light of Socrates’ defense
of its premises, however, the argument appears to commit the fallacy of equivocation. Let me
turn, then, to his defense of the argument’s premises.
Socrates does not offer any reasons to believe that premises (1) and (4) are true; his
interlocutors grant these premises without question. Premise (1) may very well be true, but it
involves a controversial assumption—a point I shall return to below. Premise (4), however,
appears to have counter-examples. Drafted soldiers, for instance, might reasonably fear and
resent a war that they had long…
David Berkowitz, also known as the Son of Sam, is a serial killer who is well known for terrorizing young couples of New York. He began his series of shootings in the summer of 1976, and by July 1977 he had killed six victims and wounded seven others. Berkowitz followed a way of doing things, also known as a modus operandi (M.O.), by leaving bizarre letters at crime scenes which mocked the police and promised further crimes. His M.O. was what eventually led to him being captured and convicted of…
continued to stay in contact with Romeo, and finally his time to strike came. The girls decided that they would tell their parent they would be at each other’s house to work on a school project. Instead of being at each other’s house the girls were really at the mall meeting boys. The boys they were going to meet were Justin and Ryan, Ryan was an older boy who was in High School, that had an after school job, so he told the girls he was going to be sending his mom to pick them up so they…
skeptical argument of the Brain in A Vat there can be many flaws or holes seen within the argument itself, Moore’s Proof, the Anti-Skeptical argument, and Modus Ponens. Throughout all of these examples many flaws or counter examples arise that can either help or reject the argument by themselves, but when using all together you get a better stance on the argument. Upon closer examination of premise one, I know that I have hands only if I know I am not a brain in a vat, this statement could be…
eventually came back due to the weather . When Victor purportedly arrived to the area for the first time and saw the body of Henry Clerval, he “called [himself] the murderer of William, of Justine, and of Clerval” (130). This reaction might have been from the grief of losing his best friend, but it can also be seen as Victor confessing to the crime of murdering Henry. If he was the monster, he would be the one that would have caused the death of his friends and family.
In fact, each person who…
Global Climate Change Argument
The Global Climate Change argument video that we viewed is highly complex and interesting and highlights the use of logic to decipher a conclusion from an argument that is heated and reoccurring. As I watched the video I felt that the argument fit the form of Modus Tollens and Modus Ponens.
If we act, then the world won’t end
So, the world won’t end.
If we act, then the world won’t end
The world is not going…
refuted by experience.” Falsification is purely deductive inference (with modus tollens, If P, then Q. If not Q, then not P. Not Q. Therefore, not P), through the truth of a single statement to the falsity of the universal statement.
For example, “All ravens are black.” In inductive method, we need to literally observe all the ravens and justify that “all ravens are black”. However, we cannot do that. In practice, we only observe enough ravens and conclude that “all ravens are black”. We…
and that the information he or she presents is why the point is correct. An argument consists of 2 things, premises and a conclusion. In the scientific method, the hypothesis, research method, and results are the premises, while the statement the researcher ends up with is the conclusion.
Science does not entirely only mean subjects like Biology and Psychology. Many people believe that mathematics can be a type of science (Leitgeb, 2013). Mathematical science can be seen as the type of…
For example, some argue whether practices indigenous to a certain country are moral or immoral. But, nobody is able to actually determine what is right and wrong in the world. Cultural Relativisms importance is especially evident when one is regarding a cultures practice. Other theories, like Divine Command Theory, don’t recognize that practices are determined by the culture in which they occupy and other factors as well such as geographical location. Divine Command Theory states that ethical…
is that Moore begs the question, and he knows it himself. He says that for a rigorous proof a premise must be certainly known, yet provides his knowledge assuming that he knows that "here is a hand". His conclusion is that there then must be the existence of an external object or world, assuming the conclusion within the premise, Moore begs the question. Moore knows this to be true, and even mentions the skeptic argument can shown wrong "only by the use of premises which are not known to be…