Modulation

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    Amplitude Modulations

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    researchers to identify the approximate location of the neuron’s receptive field responding to amplitude modulations (Heiligenberg 1987). In order to identify the approximate location of the receptive fields for neurons that are responding to phase modulations, a different, more complicated, strategy must be employed (Heiligenberg 1987). By suspending the fish in a bigger tank and surrounding it with a variety of electrodes that will be used as the jamming signal, the neurons…

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    Nt1310 Unit 2 Bsk System

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    2. QPSK: When a data is transmitted using BPSK technique the channel bandwidth required is 2fb. The QPSK technique reduces that bandwidth to fb. It is a multilevel phase modulation. In this two successive bits in a bit stream are combined together to form a message and each message is represented by distinct value of phase shift of a carrier. The QPSK signal is represented as. Since there are 4 phases it is called as 4-PSK or Quadrature PSK systems [6][7]. 3. QAM: QAM improves the noise…

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    In order to get a good design, the bandwidth of modulation need to be minimized for transmission. A transmission bandwidth that has a greater magnitude than the bandwidth required for the minimum signal is used by the spread spectrum. The advantage of spread spectrum is that it can be many users use the same bandwidth at the same time without interfering with each other. However, this is not good for a few number of users because it is not economic. Spread spectrum is a form of wireless…

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    same theme but it appears in 5th above which starts in ‘G’ (1 Figure). This theme appears again and again as the modulated form through the whole movement. It sounds pretty simple but it plays very important role in this movement because it sets center tonality of this movement. Also, this movement starts with this theme and also ends with this theme so it contributes to establishing coherence of the movement (2 Figure). This can explain the ‘organic’ sense which Solie, the author of article…

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    2 OFDM SYSTEM:- OFDM system is divided into three parts 1. multi carrier modulation 2. frequency division multiplexing 3. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. 1.Frequency division multiplexing:- Frequency Division Multiplexing is a form of signal multiplexing which involves assigning non – overlapping frequency ranges or channels to different signals or to each user of a medium. A gap is left between each of these channels to ensure that the signal of one channel does not overlap with…

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    15. What is modulation? Give its advantages. Answer Definition of Modulation The message signal having weak strength cannot be transmitted directly through the communication channel Since carrier signal carries the message signal therefore, certain carrier signal parameters are changed according to the message signal. A method in which message signal is transmitted to the receiver with the help of carrier signal is called modulation. In this, both carrier signal and message signal are…

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    Sinusoidal Wave Artifact

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    This artifact is primary based on sample rates and to see the effects of sample rates by using Sinusoidal waves. Sinusoidal waves can be represented using frequency and period. The Frequency of a Sinusoidal wave is the number of complete cycles that happen in a particular period of time or in a given sample. The Period in terms of Sinusoidal waves, is the time it takes to perform one complete cycle. The Sinusoidal wave is a series of identical cycles happening repeatedly. The sample rate is the…

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    Chapter eight of the text Sound and Recording by Francis Rumsey and Tim McCormick, discusses the principles of digital audio, and contrasts digital with analog. The text also illustrates how digital and analog work together to produce desired sound. In the world of audio there are two types; digital and analog. Analog can be described as physical or tangible in a sense, being etched onto some type of media. Digital however, is a representation of the audio waveform, which is converted into a…

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    RADIOWAVE OUTDOOR PROPAGATION MODELS General definition: • They are empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions. • These models predict the path loss (i.e. the reduction in power density of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space or underground) of a transmitter and also the effective coverage area of transmitter. We know that when a signal travels from a wireless channel, it…

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    Pain Modulation Of Pain

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    Pain is modulated by descending mechanisms of nociceptive transmission between the brain and spinal cord. Multiple brain regions, pathways, and chemical mediators are involved in this modulation of pain. One type of powerful mediator involved in pain modulation are opioids. Endogenous opioid peptides, as well as exogenous opioid agonists, bind and activate opioid receptors. Activated opioid receptors directly inhibit ON cells and also inhibit GABAergic interneurons which inhibit OFF cells, thus…

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