Microbial biodegradation

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    To time-travel back a decade and disclose that coffee is traded in the form of individual packets alike its complementary cream or sugar would result in a roar of laughter. Nevertheless, the ability to elude the act of rinsing and preparing of coffee capsules has generated the premium level of convenience for consumers, bestowing coffee companies with tremendous success. In fact, the coffee capsule market has unimaginably expanded to the extent where environmental concerns regarding the packaging has arisen. Environmentalists and governments have contemplated and experimented with a diverse of methods to counteract the supplementary influx of unrecyclable plastic into our landfills. BBC News reported two resolutions to the obstacle in the form of restriction and reform. Employing social media, environmental activists established the “Kill the K-cup” campaign to eliminate the capsules entirely, successfully prompting the city of Hamburg to implement a city-wide capsule prohibition in government institutions (BBC News). Despite depicting the city’s position regarding the products, the environmental effects are negligible as capsule consumption is predominately from personal households and corporations. If this legislation is extended towards entire populations, dwindling government confidence will ensue as unjustified enforcement is implanted on a product that lacks of immediate threat and this undermines freedom of choice. Passionate coffee consumers and coffee companies…

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    Polyethylene Terephthalate

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    Polyethylene terephthalate, most commonly known as plastic, is a material consisting of a wide range of synthetic and/or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable/ductile and can be molded into many solid objects. Plastics are typically made of organic polymers (chains of carbon or chains of carbon that have been bonded to other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen or sulfur) having high molecular masses, but often contain other substances. Usually being synthetic, and most commonly made from…

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    also occurred at runs 13 and 14, respectively. The originally toluene-adapted and toluene-removing bacterium could also remove benzene very well, but not xylenes, even after almost several years of adaptation using BTEX mixture as a sole carbon and energy source. The microbial utilization of hydrocarbons is known dependent on the contaminants chemical structures, and an extensive methylation (as in xylenes) can inhibit the initial oxidation of contaminants (Atlas, 1981). However, the bioremoval…

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    Biostimulation of microorganisms by the addition of nutrients because the input of large quantities of carbon sources tends to result in a rapid depletion of the available pools of major inorganic nutrients such as N and P (Sang-Hwan et al.,2007). An example of this is the addition of fertilizer to an oil wastewater. Lastly, is the Phytoremediation which vegetation based remediation shows potential for accumulating, immobilizing, and transforming a low level of persistent contaminants. In…

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    Nutrient Agar

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    The NaCl was added to the effluent at 2.5g/L at constant applied current density (0.5 A/dm2). Effluent was continuously stirred during the treatment using a magnetic stirrer. Experiments were carried out under batch conditions for 2 hours. In electro oxidation process, the effluent was treated at different concentrations of parachlorophenol 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L. COD was determined periodically to know the extent of degradation of the real effluent. Microbial degradation For biological…

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    production of food is basically through agricultural activities and by livestock. The amount of food produced is directly related with the relationship established between the species of interest for production and the other plant, animal, microbial and parasitic biological systems that compete for resources available in the environment (Ueta et al., 1997). Among the species that threaten the agricultural production there are the weeds that, when invade crops, can cause remarkable loss in the…

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    Oil Synthesis Essay

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    products including gasoline act as carcinogens and mutagens, causing lethal alterations within the genetic information found in affected cells (Pashin and Bakhitova 1999). The effect of oil contamination with regards to plant fitness stems from the disruption of photosynthesis and CO2 absorption as well as the suppression of cell division, negatively affecting their ability to thrive in such an environment (Ramadass et al. 2014). Phytoremediation is the means by which the elimination of…

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    Environment is the term used for defining our surroundings which may include the biotic and abiotic components that are present around us. Biotic components include the microbes, plants and animals and abiotics are soil, water and air [1]. Biotechnology is the integration of technology and natural sciences by utilizing organisms and cells, to produce knowledge, services and products [2]. Environmental biotechnology refers to the application of biotechnology which is used for finding a way to…

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    Wastewater Pollution Essay

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    morbidity and mortality that they cause, but also due to the high cost of disinfecting wastewater by using physical and chemical methods in treatment plants. Bacteriophages are proposed as bacterial pathogen indicators and as an alternative biological method for wastewater treatment. Phage bio control in large scale treatment requires adaptive and aggressive phages that are able to overcome the environmental forces that interfere with phage-host interactions while targeting unwanted bacterial…

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    Scientists cannot accurately predict that the microorganisms are consuming as much as anticipated. In addition, “…biodegradation does not remove all of the hydrocarbons in crude oil—some compounds are recalcitrant to microbial attack such as higher-molecular-weight PAHs and the polars” (Atlas & Bragg, 2008, p. 2). Lastly, scientists may not be able to find a native organism that can remediate effectively, or a foreign one that can cause little change to the environment. Scientists may have to…

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