Mesolimbic pathway

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  • Neurotransmitter In The Reward System

    offspring, although pleasures in the brain are registered similarly, whether that be a feeling of satisfaction after a meal, a sexual encounter, or the “high” from alcohol or drugs. Activation of this reward pathway informs the individual to repeat the act in order to be rewarded with the same pleasures the stimuli had originally given it. Some of the main structures that constitute the reward system include the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the medial forebrain (Gardner 2011). The VTA-NAc circuit in particular, is the primary determiner of rewarding stimuli (Gardner 2011). The VTA is the home of dopaminergic neurons that associate a stimulus with reward and enhance synaptic function, and the NAc serves as the target for these neurons (Gardner 2011). The NAc plays an exceptionally important role in this pathway because it not only regulates receiving the reward, but also contributes to the synaptic plasticity of behavioral patterns for addiction (Gardner 2011). Furthermore, the synapses are strengthened in response to the increase of activity resulting from the use of drugs. Neurons that fire together wire together, meaning this drug evoked plasticity leads to circuit remodeling as well as brain reconfiguration after repetitive exposure to these pathways (Gardner 2011). The nucleas accumbens and ventral tegmental area are locations that drugs of abuse interact and process neural signals related to emotional reinforcement by prolonging the…

    Words: 2060 - Pages: 9
  • Analysis Of Video Games Are Good For You By Steve Johnson

    Steve Johnson’s, “Why Games are Good For You”, is part of his best-selling book Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Today’s Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter, which was published in 2005. Johnson writes about science and culture, specifically the impact of cyber technology on human perception and communication (481). Through this essay, Johnson defends the value of video games, along with other past times that are considered a waste of time. His main claim is that video games teach…

    Words: 824 - Pages: 4
  • Why So Many People Overshare On Social Media Essay

    The Real Reasons Why So Many People Overshare on Social Media People are becoming less and less mindful their posts on the web due to an temporary feeling media has. People are oversharing when posting because they feel drown out by the din on the contemporary media landscape. This is a problem because rather than attracting authentic attention we are only adding to the din of the noise. Before the creation of social media, an “oversharer” was someone who within the first couple minutes of…

    Words: 1263 - Pages: 5
  • Addiction: The Brain's Reward System

    This reward circuit involves pathways from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. All drugs of abuse activate this system either directly or indirectly increasing the level of dopamine, although it is also widely recognized that other neurotransmitters, such as opiate peptides, play a role in the experience of drug reward and may be important in mediating the experience of pleasure or liking in response to a rewarding stimulus. (qtd in Durrant, et…

    Words: 785 - Pages: 4
  • College Admissions Essay: My Greatest Accomplishments In My Life

    I have accomplished many things in my life that have taught me lessons of perseverance, patience, responsibility and adaptability. The three accomplishments that stand out the most in my mind are my temple marriage, bearing and raising children and completing the Pathway program. I was sealed for time and all eternity in the Mesa, Arizona Temple on February 3, 2000. It was a life goal of mine since I was a little girl. Even though I had some setbacks and had to refocus and get my life back…

    Words: 1797 - Pages: 8
  • Enzyme Peroxidase Lab Report

    Rate of Reaction for Enzyme Peroxidase When analyzing living organisms, it is merely impossible to overlook the role that metabolism plays. Metabolism, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a living organisms cells. When referring to metabolism, one must also note that metabolism contains two distinct metabolic pathways, catabolic and anabolic. Catabolic pathways involve the process of breaking down molecules in order to obtain the energy needed by living organisms. Meanwhile,…

    Words: 805 - Pages: 4
  • Qa Analysis Sample

    Network Topology Analysis (NTA) examines the local positioning of significantly altered metabolites within the pathways annotated by KEGG. NTA estimates a Pathway Impact index using a measure of the centrality (Relative Betweeness Centrality) of detected metabolites in relation to all compounds within a given metabolic network. Centrality is a local quantitative measure of the position of a metabolite relative to the other metabolites by calculating the number of shortest paths going through the…

    Words: 875 - Pages: 4
  • CTNB1 Case Study

    role in canonical WNT signaling pathway to success the gene transcription process (Clevers and Nusse., 2012). Regulation and degradation of CTNNB1 take place at the cellular level through phosphorylation of serine and/or threonine amino acid residues. Specific kinase proteins responsible for activation or degradation of CTNNB1, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylate Ser33, Ser37 and Thr41 residues in order degrade CTNNB1. Similarly, casein kinase-1 (CK1) at Ser45 residue (Fang et…

    Words: 942 - Pages: 4
  • Process Analysis Model

    Input also known as resources could be human or financial resources as well as other necessary input to support the program. Activities are those events that produce the output. The output consists of the products and services available for the customers. The customers are the users of the products/services produced at the output level. The outcomes are benefits or changes resulting from activities and output. When it is closely related to the output, it is called short-term outcome. The further…

    Words: 859 - Pages: 4
  • The Pain Receptors Are Called Nociceptors

    6. What is the mechanisms of the acupuncture? In other words, what parts of CNS activated and/or deactivated? (2pts) 1) Acupuncture activates structures of descending anti-nociceptive pathway and 2) deactivates multiple limbic area subserving pain association. 7. What is the effects of opiates and opioids on nociceptor signal transmission? (2pts) Opiates 1) decrease the duration of the postsynaptic potential, probably by reducing 〖Ca〗^(2+) influx and thus decreasing the release of transmitter…

    Words: 1306 - Pages: 6
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