Mesolimbic pathway

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    Stress Model

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    in the form of foot shock, elevates the dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens and results in more amphetamine and cocaine self-administration (Goeders and Guerin, 1994), suggesting that stress chemicals, such as CRF, glucocorticoids(GCs) , and norepinephrine (NE), have the ability to directly modulate dopaminergic pathway and in turn, response to stress and cue (Johnson et al, 2016). In details, the increase in CRF released during stress and received by the VTA might enhance dopamine release in the VTA. CRF was also said to have a direct impact on nucleus accumbens through the activation of CREB and mechanisms through which the brain reacts to the hypodopaminergic state by drug seeking. In addition, the alternation of the NE pathway in dorsal and ventral striatum was associated with the increase in possibility of relapse when exposed to conditioned cue and stress. The authors did also acknowledge that the blockage of glucocorticoid receptor in the mesolimbic reward pathway results in a decrease in dopamine. To explain the increasing pathological interaction between stress and dopamine, it was asserted that long term drug use sensitizes the dopaminergic pathways to stress, giving stress even more influence in the regulation of dopamine level in the…

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    in the other hand, driving, walking in the beach, listening to music, playing the guitar, and having a conversation with family and company are example of stress relieve or example of calming the patient down. This shows a that the patient had been comfortable with the student nurse that he honestly and openly opened up to the student nurse. And this results to a positive nurse and patient relationship. Mesocortical, mesolimbic, and nigrostriatal are types of dopamine pathways in the brain that…

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    offspring, although pleasures in the brain are registered similarly, whether that be a feeling of satisfaction after a meal, a sexual encounter, or the “high” from alcohol or drugs. Activation of this reward pathway informs the individual to repeat the act in order to be rewarded with the same pleasures the stimuli had originally given it. Some of the main structures that constitute the reward system include the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the medial forebrain…

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    The Real Reasons Why So Many People Overshare on Social Media People are becoming less and less mindful their posts on the web due to an temporary feeling media has. People are oversharing when posting because they feel drown out by the din on the contemporary media landscape. This is a problem because rather than attracting authentic attention we are only adding to the din of the noise. Before the creation of social media, an “oversharer” was someone who within the first couple minutes of…

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    This reward circuit involves pathways from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. All drugs of abuse activate this system either directly or indirectly increasing the level of dopamine, although it is also widely recognized that other neurotransmitters, such as opiate peptides, play a role in the experience of drug reward and may be important in mediating the experience of pleasure or liking in response to a rewarding stimulus. (qtd in Durrant, et…

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    Steve Johnson’s, “Why Games are Good For You”, is part of his best-selling book Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Today’s Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter, which was published in 2005. Johnson writes about science and culture, specifically the impact of cyber technology on human perception and communication (481). Through this essay, Johnson defends the value of video games, along with other past times that are considered a waste of time. His main claim is that video games teach…

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    I have accomplished many things in my life that have taught me lessons of perseverance, patience, responsibility and adaptability. The three accomplishments that stand out the most in my mind are my temple marriage, bearing and raising children and completing the Pathway program. I was sealed for time and all eternity in the Mesa, Arizona Temple on February 3, 2000. It was a life goal of mine since I was a little girl. Even though I had some setbacks and had to refocus and get my life back…

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    Rate of Reaction for Enzyme Peroxidase When analyzing living organisms, it is merely impossible to overlook the role that metabolism plays. Metabolism, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a living organisms cells. When referring to metabolism, one must also note that metabolism contains two distinct metabolic pathways, catabolic and anabolic. Catabolic pathways involve the process of breaking down molecules in order to obtain the energy needed by living organisms. Meanwhile,…

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    Qa Analysis Sample

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    Network Topology Analysis (NTA) examines the local positioning of significantly altered metabolites within the pathways annotated by KEGG. NTA estimates a Pathway Impact index using a measure of the centrality (Relative Betweeness Centrality) of detected metabolites in relation to all compounds within a given metabolic network. Centrality is a local quantitative measure of the position of a metabolite relative to the other metabolites by calculating the number of shortest paths going through the…

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    CTNB1 Case Study

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    role in canonical WNT signaling pathway to success the gene transcription process (Clevers and Nusse., 2012). Regulation and degradation of CTNNB1 take place at the cellular level through phosphorylation of serine and/or threonine amino acid residues. Specific kinase proteins responsible for activation or degradation of CTNNB1, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylate Ser33, Ser37 and Thr41 residues in order degrade CTNNB1. Similarly, casein kinase-1 (CK1) at Ser45 residue (Fang et…

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