Long-term potentiation

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    This sleep deprivation study titled Maternal sleep deprivation at different stages of pregnancy impairs the emotional and cognitive functions, and suppresses hippocampal long-term potentiation in the offspring rats was conducted by six researchers known as Peng, Y., Wang, W., Tan, T., He, W., Dong, Z., Wang, Y., & Han H. They proceeded with this study by obtaining male and female Sprague–Dawley rats from Chongqing Medical University Animal Care Centre. Next, they took these rats to the laboratory colony of Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University where they allowed the rats to mate. The offspring’s produced were the ones who were included in this study. There is evidence that sleep deprivation during pregnancy has effects on the mother as well as the newborn, however, there is limited evidence about whether sleep deprivation at different stages of pregnancy has an equivalent effect on the emotional and cognitive functions of the newborns. The theory presented in this study is whether sleep deprivation at different stages of pregnancy affects emotional and cognitive functions of the offspring and suppresses the hippocampal long-term potential. These six researchers collected their data by separating the group of pregnant rats into four different groups. These groups included a control group which was normal…

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    Synaptic Plasticity

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    Long lasting forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) have been shown to be fundamental cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Induction of LTP occurs concomitantly with learning in the hippocampus of freely-moving animals and is known to prevent occludes subsequent electrical induction of LTP in the hippocampus (Whitlock et al., 2006). Conversely, saturation of hippocampal LTP is also known to interfere with spatial memory…

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    Kinesin Synthesis

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    Our logic for choosing kinesin for developing CNS therapeutics is based upon our own research, which found that kinesins are transcriptionally upregulated during memory storage and that they are both necessary and sufficient to induce long-term memory storage (LTM) in the marine snail, Aplysia californica (Puthanveettil et al., 2008; Fig 1). Furthermore, other researchers have also discovered that an increase in specific kinesin function in the mouse forebrain improves working memory (Wong et…

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    Hypothesis Statement: The Atypical Protein Kinase C Zeta (PKMz) is the molecular mechanism underlying Long Term Potentiation (LTP) maintenance at the synaptic membrane. Furthermore, this process is regulated at the level of translation of a locally available pool of PKMz mRNA, and can be sustained in part by active PKMz itself, or inhibited via an activity-dependent translation block. Significance: If the effects of a true PKMz conditional knockout result in memory impairments similar to the…

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    Synaptic Plasticity

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    Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) have been long thought and now convincingly demonstrated to be fundamental cellular mechanisms in the brain that underlie learning and memory processes. Indeed, induction of LTP is observed coincidently with learning events in the hippocampus of free-moving animals and this learning-induced LTP occludes subsequent electrical induction of LTP in the hippocampus (Whitlock et al., 2006).…

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    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. It has been observed that there is approximately a 90% loss of acetylcholine in the brains of people afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease (Boeree, 2009). The α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7- nAChRs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus (Prickaerts et al., 2011). Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is the constant increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission. Research…

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    Synaptic Plasticity

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    Number of plasticity studies explained the crucial role of Short Term synaptic Plasticity (STP) in modulating the timing of signal processing through mediating the driven input frequency and filtering the signal propagation which is required for maintaining network activity (Tsodyks et al., 1998; Dittman et al, 2000 and Wang et al., 2006). In parallel, other studies revealed the intricate details of the neurobiological explanation implicated in STP (Loebel et al., 2002 and Barak et al., 2007).…

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    An average person can remember things that happen in their lives whether it be for a short time, or a long time. There are many factors involving the memory of the brain such as sleep. The human brain is a unique and amazing place where one can store things about their life. Some would say, that the human memory is like a huge library of moments stored throughout our brains. In my opinion, this is a great process is that if we are experiencing something new in our life, we can go and look up a…

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    Essay On Polychronization

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    two major properties—They are asynchronous, but time-locked and (ii) Axonal delays may lead them to be coincident at another point in the network.  Delays: Synapses have axonal delays in the range of 1-20ms. Axonal delays lead to firing patterns that cannot be produced without them.  Networks: To simulate polychronization, we use a large, anatomically realistic network (~100,000 neurons) having receptors with AMPA, NMDA, GABAA, and GABAB kinetics and long-term and short-term synaptic…

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    My research interests are focused on molecular mechanisms of memory formation during infancy. I’m very interested in exploring how experiences during infancy results in hippocampal long-lasting changes, which influence adult behavior. Traumatic early life experiences can predispose individuals to psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder, addiction, depression and anxiety1-4. Paradoxically, episodic memories formed during infancy are…

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