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    rangatira. Tikanga tika is all about respect and mana of self and mana of others. Henare (1988) proposes that mana is central to understanding the Māori world view. He says that in the Māori world, virtually every activity has a link with the maintenance of and enhancement of mana. It is central to the integrity of the person and the group. The kupu, manaaki can be broken down to MANA A KI - fill with respect. MA NA also denotes the reciprocity in that we cannot add or diminish another person’s mana, without adding or diminishing our own mana. The practise of Tikanga is about acting with integrity. Being pono is my accountability to my tūpuna and my mokopuna. Central to my philosophy is my heart, DNA and wairua connectivity to my whānau, hapū, iwi. Ko au, ko te whānau, ko te whānau, ko au. My responsibility and obligation to my mokopuna is integral to my life purpose and motivates me to do what I do. There is also an intergenerational responsibility looking to the past and acknowledging and respecting our tūpuna because if they were not, I would not be and if I were not, my mokopuna would not be. The Māori philosophy of connection and the importance of retaining our tikanga to retain and maintain our mana and identity is similar to the sentiments of other indigenous cultures. In the Te Ara Encyclopedia website (2014), Timoti Karetu is quoted as saying that “if we lose our tikanga around tangihanga we lose our identity of who we are”. He said “if we forget our cultural…

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    Conflict theory suggests that human behavior in social contexts results from conflicts between competing groups. Social order is based on manipulation and control by dominant groups. Life is characterized by conflict not consensus. Te Kupenga shows conflict theory being used by Ngati Kahungunu Shown through the Chiefs of Aotearoa, superiors to all below them and controlling of all situations that involve there iwi, this is seen through the levels of domination the highest domination being the…

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    for unauthorised people (Barlow 1991:105). If an unauthorised person enters or uses the place that the rāhui is imposed under, is to trample on the mana of the chief that has placed the rāhui. Whereupon, he would use every force to punish the offender for doing this (Ka’ai 2004:85). There are many different sizes of rāhui that are imposed on particular places. A rāhui may embrace an extensive area or it might even be applied to a more confined space, for example a particular part of a coast…

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    This sub-section outlines the land tenure and kinship traits of the Wampup and Gabsongkeg villagers (Wampar group). As highlighted in Section 8.2.2, the Geaganson and Orognaron tribe own most of the land through patrilineal lineage. Lineages claimed areas where their ancestors settled when they came to the Lower Markham Valley. Later during the colonial era, the Australian Administration claimed some of these lands belonging to the Geaganson and Orognaron tribe for agricultural usage especially…

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    When one observes a profile picture, one tends to see optimistic, attractive traits to showcase that they have their life together. Everyone tends to parade their best self, a disguise of sorts. Long ago Hawaiian bones were stolen from their sacred grave sites and distributed across Europe, America, and other locations. In America, the bones were required to be returned to their origins, but not in Europe. Within in the play, Ola Na Iwi by Victoria Kneubuhl, a character named Kawehi who’s from…

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    TASK 2: Explain viewpoints on the contemporary geographic issue. 1. Strongly for Neutral Strongly against A. Wayne Brown B. Phil Heatley C. Huhana Seve D. Catherine Delahunty E. Winston Peters 2. Three individuals- a. Wayne Brown b. Winston Peters c. Huhana Seve A. Huhana Seve- Huhana Seve and the people of the Ngapuhi Iwi value not only their mineral assets but the land in which these minerals are buried beneath. Many land and waters which have been proposed to the…

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    As highlighted in this essay, these cultural concepts play a major role in governing the way in which Māori behave with their hapu, iwi, others, and the environment. Utu, tapu, and mana all highlight how cultural concepts reflect and shape the Māori worldview. These three concepts, along with others, still play a key role in Māori society and still hold the same importance as they would have to their ancestors. Though the ways in which these concepts may be practiced may differ from what was…

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    seabed. The Labour Government at the time was not happy with this. So they passed the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004 which reversed the decision of the court. As a result, the foreshore and seabed were placed in Crown ownership. While this is part of parliamentary supremacy, the Labour Government 's decision would have a significant impact on Māori/Government relationships. Following the election of the National Government in 2008, and the confidence and supply agreement with the Māori Party,…

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    physically and spiritually (Salamone 1997, 41). This essay will look at the level to which aggression is reflected in to child rearing in Yanomami tribes in the 20th century. This essay will further explore the internal conflict of a village as a product of aggressive behaviour between men on the expressed status they hold and how their society may come to extreme resolutions. It will also look at the way boys are shaped through social structure to become warriors by partaking in dangerous games…

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    Pōwhiri Rituals

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    out by the men who sit in a row on the paepae (speaker’s bench). Traditionally, only men who were experts in the art of whaikōrero could stand to speak. Women are not permitted to occupy a place on the paepae as they have other roles and responsibilies within the pōwhiri. However, some high-ranking women do have the pleasure to speak, but this is dependent on the kawa of that particular marae. The format of a whaikōrero is as follows: • A tauparapara (special chant or incantation) • An…

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