Italian popes

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    Pope Eugenius III promised Bernard the same indulgences for it that Pope Urban II had promised during the First Crusade (Catholic Online). Bernard is well remembered in history, which can partly be attributed to the fact that 482 of his letters were preserved and translated (Gasquet). Bernard died on the 20th of August, 1153 at the age of sixty-three. St. Bernard was canonized in 1174 by Pope Alexander III (Gasquet). In 1830, Pope Pius VII declared Bernard a Doctor of the Church (Catholic Online). Bernard was an extremely religious man, and he often used his beliefs to get others to believe in him. He is historically remembered as a well-liked man, which supported by many of his letters. For example, in a letter written in 1127 to Suger, abbot of St. Denis, Bernard wrote that God had done “great things” for Suger’s soul (Gasquet 70). Throughout his letter to Suger, it is clear that Bernard was very pleasant and optimistic. He said “if I recall the remembrance of past evils it is not in order to cast confusion or to reproach on anyone,” but rather to make the future look brighter, “because there is nothing which makes the present good shine forth more clearly than a comparison with the evils which preceded it” (75-76). In another letter, to Pope Innocent in 1139, Bernard of Clairvaux describes in detail his devotion to his faith. Bernard’s writing expresses a gentle…

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    God was the commander of the crusade The medieval Christian tradition had a long path, and a complicated relationship with committing violence’s and warfare. The earlies writings concerning Christians and violence’s is from Augustus of Hippo from the fourth century C.E. that easys the notion of a just war on to humanity. I argue that the first crusade of Pope Urban II was not act out of character of Christianity and it was the currents events that are the cause for the first crusade, and the…

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    ?? Joshua Waldoch Professor Laid Boswell History 120 9 October 2017 Public Opinion and the Papacy The Catholic Church has had a lasting impression on the European Landscape throughout history, and for the most part, the general public went along with the Catholic Church and the Pope because, that was all the people of Europe knew. However, that began to change, as the thoughts and ideals that were formed during the Enlightenment came to prominence. In David Kertzer’s book The Kidnapping of…

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    art. All of the pieces of art were Italian and were created before the 1500s. The titles of the pieces of art are Branchini Madonna, Martyrdom of Pope-Saint Caius, and The Madonna and Child. The pieces were all great pieces of art and were distinct in their nature. The art gives insight as to how society was during that time and even can provide evidence of the technological…

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    In 1305, Philip IV convinced the body of Cardinals to appoint a French archbishop as the new pope. Clement V, the recently appointed pope, moved from Rome to the city of Avignon in France. The transfer to Avignon exceedingly enfeebled the Church. When reformers eventually attempted to relocate the papacy back to Rome, yet, the outcome was surprisingly severe. In 1378, Pope Gregory XI passed away while paying a visit to Rome. The body of Cardinals then gathered in Rome to select an inheritor. The…

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    to be the Pope at the same time in 1409. Not to be confused with the Great Schism in 1054 which created the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. This division created tension in Europe as different countries supported different Popes. The divide happened because Pope Clement V moved to Avignon, a town in East France, in the early 1300s. Allowing the French king more control over the Paple Court. This had a great effect on the society and people of France as now the king had more power in…

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    Essay On Vatican City

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    Vatican or Vatican City is the smallest country in the world. “Holy See” is the city’s nickname that comes from the Latin Sancta Sedes, meaning “Holy Chair.” Vatican City is the capital of itself because it does not have a capital because of its small size, and number of citizens. The official languages in Vatican City are Italian, French and Latin. This country is the headquarters of Roman Catholicism; the Roman Catholic religion. Vatican’s population is about 800 people, but 451 have…

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    It is beginning to appear very clearly to me that the inconsistencies in the military had a very destructive role in the Italian history during this period. The reason I say this is because the mercenaries although not mentioned here specifically and the worthless auxiliary army plus mixed army, were all non-reliable. I can see the predicaments that the popes have all gone through or witnessed due to inconsistent military personnel and that in itself invited the coup d’état whereby the popes…

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    For centuries, the papacy and the pope have been around and are a significant aspect of the Italian culture and history. According to Catholic tradition, Jesus founded the papacy in the first century, when he chose St. Peter, the leader of the apostles, to be his earthly representative. "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I will build my church," he states in chapter 16 of Matthew. "I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven." Those words, which now circle the dome of St. Peter's…

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    A.D. 452 Yesterday, what could have been a horrendous day for Rome, was prevented by Pope Leo the Great. Attila the Hun, who had already sacked northern Italian cities and towns, was planning to march on Rome. At this time, beloved Pope Leo had come to save the day. Pope Leo has surely proven himself a great and trustworthy leader. Pope Leo was notified about Attila the Hun’s plan to march on Rome and took brave and quick action. He knew that he was obliged to take action and meet Attila to…

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