Isotopes of carbon

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    An Isotope is an atom of an element which has a different number of neutrons and different mass number but the same proton number. The isotope that will be focused in the essay is carbon 14 isotope. Carbon is found in all living things and is the building block for organic material, there is carbon 12, 13 and 14 and they all have different properties. This isotope was discovered on February 27, 1940 by Martin Karmen and Sam Ruben and is the most radioactive out of all carbon isotopes. The relative abundance of it is >0.1% (trace amount) and its relative mass is 14.003241. It has 6 protons and 8 neutrons. This particular isotope is found in all carbon containing substances however it is very rare. Carbon 14 is used for radiocarbon dating which…

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    Diagram 1 ¶: The diagram of the atom Carbon-12 represents an ion and an isotope. Carbon-12 has six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus, as shown on the diagram. Outside of the nucleus, this atom has five electrons. The protons are shown in the color orange, neutrons are in the color blue, and electrons in the color teal. The scientific principle subatomic particles says they are smaller than the atom itself, meaning protons with a positive charge, neutrons with a neutral charge, and…

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    unit, or amu. Many elements have multiple isotopes, or versions of atoms, which have the same atomic numbers, but a different atomic mass which changes according to the amount of neutrons in the nucleus. By 1911, the constituents of atoms have been discovered to be known as electrons, protons, and neutrons, but what remain undiscovered was how they were arranged. J.J. Thompson theorized that electrons and protons were evenly distributed in the atom which he called the “Plum Pudding” Model.…

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    What is radioactive dating? and how does it work? Radioactive, or Radiometric dating is a technique used to determine the age of objects such as rocks or carbon by using the decay rate of radioactive isotopes. It has been used since its invention by Ernest Rutherford in 1905. Radioactive decay itself, is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation. Each radioisotope decays at its own fixed rate and this is measured in half lives. As discussed in Lesson 6,…

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    Iridium-192 is a radioactive isotope that’s used daily in a series of world changing ways. It’s a synthetically produced metal, made as a by-product of nickel and copper, and the Iridium-containing ores are found in the U.S.A, Alaska, South Africa and Australia. Used both in the medical and industrial world, this radioisotope is underappreciated for its benefits to society. Though there are some risks, the reward undeniably outweighs them. Iridium-192 has a half-life of approximately 73 days,…

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    Cl-36 Dating

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    This region is characterized by a steep increase of the annual rainfall (summer rains from July to September) from 150 mm/year at their northern margin to more than 350 mm/year at the southern margin. Groundwater samples were collected by Gröning et al., (1993) and analyzed for H and O isotopes in both areas. Darfur has δ18O, which varies between -10.99 and 4.73‰, while δD ranges between -81.7 and 42‰; Kordofan has δ18O, which varies between -11.26 and 14.57‰, while δD ranges between -80.5 and…

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    Sulfur Research Paper

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    This specific category retains qualities almost opposite that of metals- elements characterized mostly by luster and a solid structure. For instance, nonmetals usually take the form of brittle solids or gases in room temperature and are generally rather poor conductors of thermal energy (heat) and electricity. They furthermore possess lower densities, boiling and melting points than metals. There may be certain rule-breakers, however, including carbon, which is a relatively good conductor of…

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    Strontium Isotope Ratios

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    Strontium Isotope ratios are used in archaeology to track human migration.86Sr abundance is constant, but 87Sr forms through decay of 87Rb in rock. Rock age and initial Rb/Sr ratios vary geographically, making87Sr/86Sr a location tracer. Strontium, weathered from bedrock into groundwater then taken up by flora and fauna, can substitute for Ca in tooth enamel. Enamel only forms during childhood, specifically the early first and second molars mineralize during early childhood; the third molar…

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    Methods Of Dating Essay

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    and anthropologists work together to date objects found in their archeological digging, many being millions of years old. Various methods of dating are available, depending on what they are trying to date. In this essay, the techniques of dating objects will be explored and compared. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, but all extremely complex and scientific, each with its own purpose. The methods that will be discussed will be Radio Carbon Dating, Relative Dating, Absolute…

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    Maple Syrup: A Case Study

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    δ13C is a comparison between the ratio of carbon 13 and carbon 12 of the object of interest compared to a standard. The cause of the -20‰ of δ13C in the maple syrup is no cause for concern. The reason -20‰ of δ13C may have been a cause for concern is because there are some sugarwoods that will adulterate their maple syrup with corn syrup or cane sugar. Corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, have a higher δ13C content than maple syrup. Typically corn syrup and cane sugar have between -9‰ to -12‰…

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