Ion channel

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    Ion channels are membrane proteins that selectively allow the permeation of ions into and out of cells (Fig.1a ###image messes with formatting). Some channels have evolved to also sense changes in the electrical potential across a membrane. A potential above a certain voltage will trigger the opening of these ion-conducting pores, releasing large stores of ions across the membrane. These voltage-gated ion channels allow for the generation of electrical stimuli (the firing of neurons via the action potential; Fig.1b###) that can travel long distances in the body, enabling functions such as heartbeat, sensation, muscle contraction, hormonal activity, fluid secretion, immune response and, of course, brain activity. Ion channel drugs are used to treat major cardiovascular, neurological, muscular, metabolic, and respiratory conditions. In particular, sodium channel drugs have the remarkable ability to target specific cells to control sensory or motor functions, without threatening vital processes. This selectivity allows for uses as local anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-arrhythmic and anti-epileptic drugs.…

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    Predatory Conus Hormones

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    targets are ion channels and receptors in the neuromuscular system. The venom of Conus geographus contains high-affinity peptides that act on voltage-sensitive calcium channels, sodium Channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and vasopressin receptors; many more peptides with still uncharacterized receptor targets are present in this venom. It now seems that the Conus species (approximately 500 in number) will each use a distinctive assortment of peptides and…

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    significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen drug-caffeine has on the neurotransmitter Adenosine. Caffeine is a known antagonist of Adenosine, inquiring that it counters Adenosine’s inhibitory effects by a simple mechanism of competitive inhibition – not allowing Adenosine to bind to its corresponding receptor. The chosen sub-group of neurons to be patched are Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons, for they possess an…

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    any interactions with the cell membranes lining this pathway. The symplastic pathway utilizes ionic channels and protein pumps [15]. For cellular uptake of strontium and calcium, cells may use non-specific ion pumps or element specific channels that only remove strontium and calcium from the nutrient…

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    It is always right for kids. There are many kids channels in television such as: PBS kids, Cartoon network, and Disney channel. Each channel has their own special program, but their same purpose is entertainment. For example, children really love PBS kids. Absolutely, they watched it all day when they were little. In addition, people usually found their children watched these channels in their school while they were waiting for their parents. It means that school also uses television as a school…

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    Heat Dissolving Lab Report

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    Different solvents need different amounts of energy to break their bonds, as they are made of different ions. • Temperature of the water. The higher the temperature of the water at the start, the bigger the energy changes in dissolving when it is exothermic. The factor that I will be looking at for this experiment is how the mass of solvent effects the temperature change. The factor that I am choosing to investigate is how the mass of the solute affects the temperature change during…

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    water will be equal. This is because of the Law of Conservation of Mass. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in any given chemical equation, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products. During a chemical reaction, the atoms/ions of the reactants are rearranged to form new products. Thus, chemical equations must always be balanced, with the same kinds and numbers of atoms/ions and mass on both sides of the arrow, meaning that the combined mass of the sodium…

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    different industries such as petrochemical, food or resin manufactured. Since common biological treatment for these kinds of compounds is not feasible, is important to develop new technologies to treat these recalcitrant molecules. In this paper the authors studied the influence of chloride and sulfate anions on Fenton’s reaction of three representative phenol compounds: phenol, 2-chloro- and 2-nitrophenol. The batch experiments were carried out with the phenol solution in the absence of light,…

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    Baccl2 Test Lab Report

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    This is a test to see if SO4 is present in the solution. If the mixture has a white precipitate of Barium Sulfate, then the solution has a sulphate ion present (4). Taking one of the remaining test tubes, add 0.1 mL of BaCl2 into the solution and mix well. HCl Test Fig 5. If HCl is present in the solution, bubbling and a strong smell of ammonium should be present. Using the remaining test tube, add 0.1 ml of HCl into the solution. Record your findings. Record Conductivity using…

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    It can be lowered by lowering the pressure of the air of which will push down on the water so its molecules can escape into the air. The boiling point raised if a solute is dissolved into it. How much the boiling point is raised depends on how much of the solute there is. This makes the water dilute which means that most of the water molecules are at the bottom and few can escape. This is known as reducing vapor pressure of water. Table salt breaks into a sodium ion and chloride ion, so there…

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