Ion channel

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    Ion channels are membrane proteins that selectively allow the permeation of ions into and out of cells (Fig.1a ###image messes with formatting). Some channels have evolved to also sense changes in the electrical potential across a membrane. A potential above a certain voltage will trigger the opening of these ion-conducting pores, releasing large stores of ions across the membrane. These voltage-gated ion channels allow for the generation of electrical stimuli (the firing of neurons via the action potential; Fig.1b###) that can travel long distances in the body, enabling functions such as heartbeat, sensation, muscle contraction, hormonal activity, fluid secretion, immune response and, of course, brain activity. Ion channel drugs are used to treat major cardiovascular, neurological, muscular, metabolic, and respiratory conditions. In particular, sodium channel drugs have the remarkable ability to target specific cells to control sensory or motor functions, without threatening vital processes. This selectivity allows for uses as local anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-arrhythmic and anti-epileptic drugs.…

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    Predatory Conus Hormones

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    targets are ion channels and receptors in the neuromuscular system. The venom of Conus geographus contains high-affinity peptides that act on voltage-sensitive calcium channels, sodium Channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and vasopressin receptors; many more peptides with still uncharacterized receptor targets are present in this venom. It now seems that the Conus species (approximately 500 in number) will each use a distinctive assortment of peptides and…

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    significance of quantifying the electrical signaling of the chosen neuron is to proportionally quantify the effects the chosen drug-caffeine has on the neurotransmitter Adenosine. Caffeine is a known antagonist of Adenosine, inquiring that it counters Adenosine’s inhibitory effects by a simple mechanism of competitive inhibition – not allowing Adenosine to bind to its corresponding receptor. The chosen sub-group of neurons to be patched are Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons, for they possess an…

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    any interactions with the cell membranes lining this pathway. The symplastic pathway utilizes ionic channels and protein pumps [15]. For cellular uptake of strontium and calcium, cells may use non-specific ion pumps or element specific channels that only remove strontium and calcium from the nutrient…

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    It is always right for kids. There are many kids channels in television such as: PBS kids, Cartoon network, and Disney channel. Each channel has their own special program, but their same purpose is entertainment. For example, children really love PBS kids. Absolutely, they watched it all day when they were little. In addition, people usually found their children watched these channels in their school while they were waiting for their parents. It means that school also uses television as a school…

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    Salts and molecules have different properties because salts are ionic compounds and molecules are covalent compounds. Justification: Salt is an ionic compound. An ionic compound is formed by ionic bonding between ions of opposite charge. Sodium Chloride and Potassium Bromide are both salts that have an ionic compound. Both elements have the properties of salts which include soluble in water, conductive, and a relatively high melting point. Molecules and Sugar molecules are covalent…

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    Electronegativity is based upon the atoms strength within the element to attract electrons to form bonds. Now atoms like to fulfil the octet rule of having a perfect 8 outer shell causing it to be stable. Now unfortunately not all elements have a full outer shell now elements on the left side of the periodic table contain less than half of electrons the required energy to gain electrons is much higher than comparison to trying the energy to lose an electron. So the elements on the left side when…

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    Metronidazole Light Essay

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    DISCUSSION 6.1 FTIR SPECTROSCOPY It was observed from the FTIR graph that there was no shifting of peaks of metronidazole i,e., characteristic peak of the amine group (N-H streching) present in imidazole nucleus at 1030 cm-1 and presence of NH2 group at 3298 cm-1 in formulation. Hence, there was no interaction between drug and polymer. 6.2 METRONIDAZOLE MICROSPHERES 6.2.1 Optimization of speed (rpm) for preparation of microspheres Metronidazole microspheres were prepared using emulsion…

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    Edward Frankland give origin about the preparation of organometallics which is than further established by the discovery of ferrocene and Zeigler Natta polymerization in 1950s, and also by the preparation of dibenzenechromium in 1955. Organometallic chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject and has equal importance in inorganic, organic, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering and in Material Sciences.2 General Properties of Organometallic compounds: The M-C bond in most of the organometallic…

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    1.3. AMORPHOUS STATE The amorphous state of solids is composed of molecules that have a disordered arrangement, which do not constitute to the characteristic of the crystal grid and, therefore, have zero crystallinity. The distribution of molecules in the solid amorphous form is not entirely random as it is specific to a gaseous state because it has a certain degree of order between neighboring molecules. Due to the lack of regulation and the absence of a crystal grid, compared to the crystal…

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