# Geometrical optics

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• ## Lens Equation Analysis

Introduction A lens is an object that forms images by refracting light. The images formed can be magnified, real and virtual depending on what lens used and the set-up of the lens system. There are two types of lenses, converging and diverging lenses. Converging lenses cause parallel light rays to converge to a point. Diverging lenses cause parallel light rays to diverge. Typically converging lens are thicker in the middle and diverging lenses are thinner in the middle. Lenses are used for many applications they are used in glasses to correct eyesight, cameras to focus and capture light to form images, telescopes and also magnifying glasses. The theory of lenses can be very complicated especially for multi lens system. However in the special case when the lenses used are “thin lenses” the theory to describe them can be simplified. A thin lens is one which has spherical faces and is relatively thin compared to the object and image distances. This type of lens has a distinctive point where all parallel light rays will converge called the focal point, f. The main equations that are used in this experiment are the lens maker equation and the conjugate of foci equation (the lens equation). The Lens Equation  This equation was used in the analysis to find out the focal point of the lens used. This equation can be derived either by using geometry and trigonometry. Figure 1 Ray diagram used to derive the thin lens equation Figure 3 Ray diagram used to derive the thin lens equation…

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• ## Light Synthesis Principles

Light synthesis principles The basic idea of light waveform synthesis can be described as follows: First, the spectrum of a light waveform is decomposed into its constituent spectral components by a disperser, then, adequate modulators acting on each of this spectral components individually modifies the relative phase (or delay), the amplitude and polarization of these components before they are coherently superimposed again by a combiner to create a desired tailored waveform (Figure 2a)41.…

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• ## Inverted Fluorescence Essay

An inverted fluorescence microscope is an inverted compound light microscope equipped with modules to internally separate the different wavelengths of light, and direct them to respective detection channels. Its main components include a light source, an objective, a filter cube and a detection unit, which can be an eyepiece or a camera (Fig.1). Filter cube is a component which separates a fluorescence microscope from a light microscope. It consists of one excitation filter, one emission filter…

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• ## Fresnel Equation For Reflection Of Unpolarized Light

Fresnel Equations The intensity of reflection in between two different medium of propagation can be calculated by using Fresnel’s equation. Light can either be s-polarized, p-polarized or unpolarized. The light radiated by the sun is an unpolarized light. In order to calculate the total reflection of an unpolarized light, we must first solve the reflected light using the Fresnel equation for s and p polarized reflection. For simplification purpose, the derivation of Fresnel’s equation will be…

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• ## Kinect V2 Case Study

The Kinect V2 is composed of a time-of-flight continues-wave camera with a resolution of 512*424 pixels (width*height), an RGB camera with a resolution of 1920*1080 pixels (width*height), an array of 4 microphones and some electronics for signal elaboration. The camera is able to acquire images at a maximum frequency of 30 Hz. Sending out invisible structures pulses into the scene whilst measuring the individual traveling time of each point in the pulse (See figure 3.1, page 16). The operating…

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• ## Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) Of A Sipm?

detection efficiency (PDE) of a SiPM? Photon detection efficiency (PDE) refers to the probability that a photon arriving on the SiPM surface is detected, an initiates the process of current pulse generation. PDE is a function of the overvoltage ΔV across the terminals of the APD and wavelength λ of the incident photon. Photon detection efficiency is one of the most important characteristics of a SiPM. PDE is the product of three factors :- Geometrical fill factor (FF), Quantum Efficiency (QE)…

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• ## Wet Mount Slide Essay

The slide used during the Microscope Lab was a wet-mount slide which was used in order to view the specimens from the microscope. A wet-mount is a method for preparing specimens to view using a microscope. A myriad of specimens look better when placed in a drop of water on the microscope slide. The water supports the sample and fills the space between the coverslip and the slide. This allows light to pass easily through the slide, the sample, and the coverslip. Scientists use the wet-mount…

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• ## The Reflection Of Electron Motion In Atomic Systems

Electron motion in atomic systems, which happens on timescales of attoseconds, is at the heart of all phenomena in nature (except for nuclear processes). Electron motion is responsible for the emission of light and photosynthesis in plants. Electron motion across biological molecules transports information in our nerves and is involved in processing this information in our brains. Moreover, the valence electrons are responsible for binding atoms to form molecules. The structural change of…

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• ## Light And Objective Lens Essay

When a lens produces an image, the size of it corresponds to the focal length of the lens. The smaller the focal length, the smaller the image and the longer the focal length the bigger the image. How bright an image may be solely depends on the amount of light collected by the objective lens. How much light can be collected corresponds to the area of the objective lens. So the bigger the objective lens, the more light can be collected. If you want to increase the light gathering power by 4, you…

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• ## Optical Sensors Essay

Introduction In general an optical sensor basically is like any other device which could converts light rays(laser beams) into electronic signals, into a form ie readable. Fiber optic sensors have numerous advantages over other conventional electronic sensors. Some important advantages are as below • Ability to integrate different structure. • Their inability to conduct electric current. • Highly resistive to electromagnetic interference. • Lightweight with high sensitivity. • Multiplexing…

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