Geometrical optics

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    Light Synthesis Principles

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    Light synthesis principles The basic idea of light waveform synthesis can be described as follows: First, the spectrum of a light waveform is decomposed into its constituent spectral components by a disperser, then, adequate modulators acting on each of this spectral components individually modifies the relative phase (or delay), the amplitude and polarization of these components before they are coherently superimposed again by a combiner to create a desired tailored waveform (Figure 2a)41. Although, any arbitrary field waveform can be composed by applying the above idea, in reality the arbitrariness is sensitive to two key parameters. These are: first, the spectral resolution of the disperser ( ) which defines the temporal window (T) with in which the control can be exerted. Second, the total bandwidth ( ), this defines the shortest temporal feature ( ) that can be sculpted upon the intensity profile of the pulse which is given by , as shown in Figure 2b. If the total bandwidth is narrower than the central (centroid) frequency at the limit , this resolution is indeed given by , which corresponds to temporal features encoded on the pulse’s envelope over the time window T. In that case, waveform synthesis is practically a control of the cycle integrated properties of the pulse. However, if the total bandwidth is comparable or preferably greater than the central frequency , the resolution will be given by . This resolution is sufficient for tailoring the subcycle structure of…

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    Lens Equation Analysis

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    Introduction A lens is an object that forms images by refracting light. The images formed can be magnified, real and virtual depending on what lens used and the set-up of the lens system. There are two types of lenses, converging and diverging lenses. Converging lenses cause parallel light rays to converge to a point. Diverging lenses cause parallel light rays to diverge. Typically converging lens are thicker in the middle and diverging lenses are thinner in the middle. Lenses are used for many…

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    Hue, Saturation, and Intensity are represented as HSI in HSI colour model. The HSI model is used as an alternative to, or alongside the RGB representation. In this model, the hue of a colour is its angle measure on a colour wheel. Pure red have hue value as 0°, pure green have hue value as 120°, and pure blues have hue value as 240°. Neutral colours like white, grey, and black are set to hue value 0° for feasibility. Intensity is total brightness of the colour and also defined numerically as the…

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    Slide Motion Lab Report

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    Slide Motion Describe the movement of the slide as you move the slide toward/ away from you. Describe the movement of the slide as you move the slide from side to side. Looking at the slide, when the slide moves toward me, the image would seem to move away. Vice versa when the slide moves away, it would come towards me. Similarly, when the slide was moved from right to left, the image would go to the opposite side. So going right the image would seem to go left, and when the slide was moved to…

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    Prior to Ibn Al-Haytham, the accepted principle for optics originated from the Greeks and stated that the eye gives off light itself to produce images of objects . However, Al-Haytham considered situations in the real world that simply didn’t agree with the Greek findings, such as why objects like the moon can’t be illuminated from great distances. Al-Haytham formulated that the eye is instead a receptor of light, and that light is dispersed and diffused in geometric patterns. This is one of…

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    Ultrafast Electron Microscopy has been demonstrated to be an effective table-top technique for imaging the temporally-evolving dynamics of matter with subparticle spatial resolution on the time scale of atomic motion. A stringent enhancement of the UEM temporal resolution is demanded for recording snapshots of the electron motion which will provide a real-time access to all microscopic motions outside the atomic core and radically change our insight into the workings of the microcosm. Here, we…

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    Purpose: Observe a compound light microscope to learn the names of its major parts. Research: Microscope is an essential tool for the study of small structures such as cells. The most common type of microscope is the bright-field microscope, used for this purpose is the compound light microscope, it is called compound because it uses two sets of lenses the objective and the ocular. The ocular lens usually magnifies 10x. …

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    Microlens Case Study

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    a) Microlens Micolens are small lenses with a diameter smaller than 1 mm, they can work by diffraction, refraction or a combination of these two. When arranged regularly on a single substrate they form a microlens array. In order to be considered a good quality lens, microlenses must have qualities such as to low wavefront aberrations, consistency of focal length and pitch across the array, durability and low price. (Daly 2001) Microlens arrays have several applications, such as CCD arrays,…

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    During the microscope lab, my partner and I learned how to properly use a microscope, calculate the field of view, and view and prepare slides. Microscopes are instruments used to view very small objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye. We found that microscopes have many different parts to them, including the diaphragm, ocular lens, and objective lenses. There are three powers of magnification, scanning power (4x), low power (10x), and high power (40x). To find the total magnification,…

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    For the line shot I chose a vertical line. I saw that m railing had vertical lines and the curtain next to it did as well. So as I shoot this I make sure that I get all the vertical lines into the shot. Next is the depth of field shot. This was my favorite shot, I just loved the way the camera would focus in and out and doing that was changing the depth of the shot. I used the pen I was using for my homework and sat it on a book and put them inside of a bookshelf. I moved it many angles to show…

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