Functional response

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    to the functional groups in 6-ethoxycarbonyl-3,5-diphenyl-2-cyclohexenone. These functional groups are sp2 hybridized carbons at 3031 cm-1, sp3 hybridized carbons at 2981 cm-1, a carbonyl at 1735 cm-1, aromatic carbon-carbon stretching at 1660 cm-1, an ester carbon-oxygen stretching at 1144 cm-1, and alkene carbon-hydrogen stretching at 698 cm-1. There was no alcohol present in this spectra, indication that all of the catalyst was removed successfully. Also the presence of alkene functional…

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    Literacy: Lifelong learning Literacy as we know today is a basic fundamental human right and is the foundation for a lifelong learning experience. Literacy is more than just the ability to read and write, but it is more on the side of being able to comprehend what you are mainly reading and writing. For someone who cannot read nor write is called an illiterate person, and what illiteracy means is not having the ability to read or write. But with literacy, I feel like it gives me more confidence,…

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    self-condensation of benzaldehyde with thiamine used as the base catalyst of the reaction. The next step was the preparation of benzil from the oxidation reaction of benzoin with nitric acid. In the oxidation reaction, the alcohol functional group of benzoin was oxidized to form the carbonyl functional group of benzil, while the nitric acid was reduced into a mixture of nitrogen oxides that formed toxic brown fumes. The final step was the preparation of tetracyclone from the aldol condensation…

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    In the Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of norbornene, water and sulfuric acid were added to the C=C double bond to form norborneol. Sulfuric acid acted as a catalyst, where it was not consumed in the reaction and helped to propel the reaction forward, as it was vital in forming hydronium ion and breaking the double bond. Both the products endo-norborneol and exo-norborneol were synthesized; however regioselectivity and stereoselectivity played a role as to which product was more preferred and whether…

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    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS 1) Structure Figure 1.1 The omega-3 fatty acids are also known as ω-3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids which contain a long chain of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the chain ranges from 18 to 22 carbon atoms (Collins J.J., 2010). The fatty acids have two ends; the carboxylic acid end (-COOH) and the methyl end (-CH3). The carboxylic acid end is considered the starting of chain which is “alpha” and methyl chain is considered as the tail of the long chain…

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    INTRODUCTION Conformational isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism whereby the isomers are interconverted by rotations about the single bonds. There be terms used below such as eclipsed conformation, staggered conformation,dihedral angle and a few more. Eclipsed conformation is the conformation whereby the C-H bonds on one carbon is directly aligned with the C-H bonds of the adjacent carbon. When the C-H bond of one carbon bisects the H-C-H bond on the adjacent carbon, it is known as staggered…

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    Iodoform Test

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    Carbonyl compounds are the compounds the contain C=O group which is called carbonyl group (double bond oxygen to a carbon). There are many types of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides etc. Aldehydes and ketones are the oxidation products of alcohols. Depending on the alcohol’s structure, the product obtained will be different. Primary alcohols have one carbon and two hydrogen atoms attached will produce aldehyde and then to carboxylic acid in two…

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    1-[Cyano(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl]cycloalkanol (VF-I) synthesized through the reaction of p-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and cyclohexanone using aq. NaOH and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as PTC. NaBH4 and CoCl2 in 2:1 THF: H2O used for the reduction of VF-I to obtain 1-(2-amino-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)cyclohexanol (VF-II). Further, venlafaxine derivative of the amino acid -carboxamide (VFCA-I toVII ) synthesized through coupling of N-Phthaloyl amino acid chloride derivative (2a-2g-…

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    devices. In addition, their novelty is rapidly growing in other fields where they are used as sensing elements in chemical sensors, electrocatalysts, liquid crystals, electrochromic display devices, information storage systems, semiconductors, functional polymers and molecular metals, among others. They have also found use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). [15-17] Synthesis of Phthalocyanines A number of different methods are available for the synthesis of phthalocyanines. Phthalonitriles are…

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    Formalin Case Study

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    WHAT IS FORMALIN? Formalin is the trade name for an organic compound made by formaldehyde and water. It has the chemical formula CH2O and its chemical structure is as shown in figure.1. Uses: Formaldehyde is used mainly in the production of plastics (such as urea-formaldehyde plastics which is used in many manufacturing processes due to its useful properties such as flexural modulus, and a high heat distortion temperature, high surface hardness, low water absorption, high tensile strength, mold…

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