Fractional distillation

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  • Lab Experiment: Lab Analysis Of Tiv Photocatalysts

    TiV photocatalyst was prepared by sol–gel method using tetra-n-butyl titanate as the precursor. Solution A was prepared by dissolving 17 mL TBT in 30 mL anhydrous ethanol with stirring (300 rpm) for 30 min. The other solution that contained 28.35 mL anhydrous ethanol, 7.25 mL deionized water and 20 mL 3 M acetic acid was slowly added into the above solution with magnetic stirring at room temperature. The prepared mixture was further hydrolyzed for 60 min with stirring until the transparent sol…

    Words: 1084 - Pages: 5
  • Anti Bumping Lab Report

    throughout both the reflux process and the distillation process. Without adding these granules, bubbles of vapour may be difficult to form due to both process being conducted in a very clean, smooth glassware. Then all of a sudden a large bubble may form and disturb the liquid violently. Therefore the anti-bumping granules help prevent this ‘bumping’ which may disturb the boiling process ( This is important in both the reflux and distillation processes as in both case, these…

    Words: 1691 - Pages: 7
  • Characteristics Of Pervaporation And Distillation

    According to Ahmad S.A. and Lone S.R. “Hybrid Process (Pervaporation-Distillation)”, Distillation is a separation technique, in which a feed mixture of different components is separated into two or more reaction products by collecting the overhead distillate, formed as vapor or a mix of vapor and liquid, and keeping the remaining liquid solution in the reaction container. To achieve this: firstly, the feed has to contain a liquid or a mix of vapor-liquid mixture at the start of the reaction.…

    Words: 898 - Pages: 4
  • Synthesizing 1-Phenylazo-2-Naphtol Lab Report

    The experiment made use of two reactions in synthesizing 1-phenylazo-2-naphtol, also known as Sudan-1. The first is the diazotization reaction in which a diazonium salt is formed from the conversion of primary aromatic amines, such as aniline, to compounds with the nitroso functional group using a nitrous acid, such as HNO2. The diazonium salt was then used as an electrophile in a coupling reaction with an aromatic compound, β-naphthol. Recrystallization was conducted and yielded 0.18 g of a…

    Words: 1448 - Pages: 6
  • Preparation Of Biis-Thiourea Derivatives Case Study

    CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Preparation of Bis-Thiourea Derivatives The mixture of heptanoyl chloride and ammonium thiocynate with 1,4-phenylene diamine appeared as homogeneous solution. White precipitate was formed immediately when the solution was filtered into the beaker containing ice cubes. Then, the precipitate was filtered again and rinsed by ethanol before being dried in the desiccator. The physical data of the synthesized bis-thiourea derivatives are shown in Table 4.1.…

    Words: 762 - Pages: 4
  • Carboxylic Acid Synthesis Lab Report

    Purpose: As derivatives of carboxylic acids, esters are abundant compounds that often contribute to the fragrances in flowers, fruits, and coffee. Esters are synthesized from either organic or inorganic acids through a process called esterification. In this reaction, a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) and an alcohol (R’OH) mix in the presence of a strong acid catalyst to form a neutral, water-insoluble ester (RCOO’R) that gives off a pleasant smell. The following is an example of this reaction: The…

    Words: 1378 - Pages: 6
  • Heterogeneous Mixture

    Which one of the fo llowing is often easily separated into its components by simple techniques such l) as filtering or decanting? A) homogeneous mixture B) solutions 0 heterogeneous mixture D) elements E) compounds 2) An clement cannot 2) A) be part of a heterogeneous mixture Ji,) be a pure substance is corrccl for ___ _ 19) A) elements B) homogeneous mixtures Ohcterogeneous mixtures D) compounds 20) Which of the fo llowing is an example of a lieterogeneous mixture? @ oil and vinegar B) 70%…

    Words: 367 - Pages: 2
  • Animal Carcasses In Makeup

    The use of animal carcasses in make up Makeup is now trending more than ever, “currently there are a lot of different make up brands and products that ranges from high end to drug store”. ( Most make up comes with a list of ingredients on the wrapper or container, but do we really know what is in our make up? This document seeks to highlight the fact that major ingredients in some of the makeup products we use are indeed animal carcasses. This document serves to further…

    Words: 490 - Pages: 2
  • Hydroboration: Oxidation Of An Alkene

    Hydroboration/Oxidation of an Alkene Introduction: An alcohol can be added across the double bond of an alkene via hydration, which is the addition of a proton and alcohol group to the double bond. This reaction can yield either a Markovnikov alcohol or an Anti-Markovnikov alcohol. If the reaction is carried out in acidic conditions, the reaction yields a Markovnikov alcohol. The mechanism includes the formation of a carbocation intermediate, which has a lower activation energy when it is…

    Words: 630 - Pages: 3
  • Synthesis Of Tin (IV) Porphyrin Synthesis

    Results and Discussion Synthesis of Tin(IV) Porphyrin-Viologen Dyad: Tin(IV)porphyrin-viologen dyads 1 & 2 (scheme 1) used in this study was synthesized by a series of reactions. 1-(4-Carboxybenzyl)-1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium hexaflurophosphate was prepared from the reaction between 1-Methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium iodide with 4-(bromomethyl)benzoic acid followed by ion exchange with NH4PF6. Reaction of 1-(4-Carboxybenzyl)-1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium hexaflurophosphate with [Sn(OH)2TPP] (TPP =…

    Words: 1452 - Pages: 6
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