Fluorescent in situ hybridization

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    several molecular genetic tests for NF1: Comprehensive multistep mutation detection, Genomic DNA sequence analysis, Deletion/ duplication analysis, and Cytogenetic analysis. The comprehensive multistep mutation detection protocol has been effective in detecting 95% of individuals with a pathogenic NF1 variant while Genomic sequencing, deletion/duplication analysis, and Cytogenetic analysis have only been able to detect a defect in the NF1 gene in 61%, 5%, and less than 1% of individuals. The most effective method of detection, the comprehensive multi-step screening approach analyses both mRNA, genomic DNA, and tests for whole NF1 deletions (Friedman 2014). The testing begins with an optimized protein truncation test, then a fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, followed by direct sequencing, a long range reverse transcriptase PCR with Southern blot analysis and, if necessary, cytogenetic analysis although it is only used in a select few laboratories (Boyd et al. 2009). Although genetic testing is successful in determining whether an individual has Neurofibromatosis type 1, the test is unable to determine the severity or outcome of the disease due to the lack of genotype to phenotype correlations in the disease. Two exceptions however are patients with complete loss of the NF1 gene who would have severe cognitive impairment as well as a host of other problems, and patients with a three-base pair inframe deletion in exon 17 of the NF1 gene which would have a lower…

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    cDNAs of rat GR (~0.4 kb) and rat SERT (~0.7 kb) in pGEM-3Zf vectors with T7 RNA polymerase and DIG RNA labeling mix (Roche, Branford, CT, USA). The amount of the transcript was estimated by comparison to DIG-labeled control RNA (Roche, Branford, CT, USA) in Dot-blot assays on nylon membranes (Roche, Branford, CT, USA). The ISH protocol is similar to the one from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory with minor modifications (Javelle et al. 2011). In brief, slides were fixed with 4% (w/v)…

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    hypothesized that the imbalance of commensal gut flora results in inflammatory bowel diseases such as CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). To test this hypothesis, biopsies of patients with CD and UC were obtained and compared to healthy individuals. Results indicated that individuals with CD had increased levels of the Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes phyla but decreased levels in Firmicutes in comparison to the healthy individuals. Table 1 illustrates the precise numbers of colonies. Patients…

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    symptoms which need further diagnoses. Leukemia detection test involves many diagnostic methods such as blood test, bone marrow test, cytogenetic analysis, immunophenotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunoglobulin test, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and G-banding karyotyping. The evaluation of these this diagnostic test takes place in the laboratory to determine the treatment plan for the patient. Most of these diagnostic tests are also in use throughout the treatment to…

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    Ethics Of Euthanasia

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    quote Immanuel Kant in Metaphysics of Morals- In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so. Ethics are the set of rules or guidelines that govern all human beings. Medical ethics related to the guidelines set for medical practitioners. Problems arise when people disagree about the morality and ramifications of certain things. In my essay I will attempt to answer why Pre-implantation Gametic diagnosis is a controversial issues…

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    the DNA strand. According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, “Gene tests may also detect genes with too many copies, individual genes that are too active, genes that are turned off, or genes that are lost entirely.” There are a variety of ways that a gene test examines a person’s DNA. Two forms of this testing are DNA probes and DNA or RNA sequencing. A DNA probe will search for its complement and if an altered gene is found it will bind to it while DNA or RNA sequencing is more…

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    example of a few diseases that could be found using a karyotype is Down syndrome which is trisomy 21, meaning there are three copies of the 21st chromosome. Another example would be Turner syndrome in females where they are missing an X chromosome (Types of). One downside of doing a karyotype is that it is not capable of recognizing segments of chromosomes that have been re-arranged or deleted. It also can’t tell the geneticist about any changes in the sequence of DNA (Types of). This is more of…

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    Vmhv1

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    1) Explain how the Lin et al. used the catFISH technique to determine which neurons are involved in particular behaviors (3 pts) Lin et al. used catFISH (cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescent in situ hybridization) to compare the activation of c-fos expression during two successive episodes of behavior (either the same behavior or different) in the same animal. Through experimentation, researchers discovered that animals killed five minutes after fighting expressed…

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    disease have no history of it in their family Cri du chat syndrome is not caused by a mutation but by the absence of genetic information all together making it different from many other genetic disorders. There are no prenatal tests for it. Doctors can only determine if an infant is affected after birth. According to the Genetic Disorders Sourcebook, the cat-like cry is the best way to diagnose the condition in infants. Postnatal genetic testing can determine if an infant has Cri du chat…

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    formation and the induction of larval settlement (Huang et al., 2007). Upon settling, marine invertebrates quickly metamorphose to their adult morphology. As sessile adults, sponges in the phylum Porifera host a robust symbiotic microbial community. Bacteria, archaea and single-celled eukaryotes may make up to 40% of the total sponge volume (Webster and Taylor, 2012). DNA sequencing has widened the gap between our understandings of the function of sponge-associated microorganisms and their…

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