Table of Contents 1. Fluid Mechanics 1.1 Main Branches 1.1.1 Fluid Statics 1.1.2 Fluid Dynamics 1.2 Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluids 1.3 Fluids in technology 1.4 Fluid mechanics serving role in society 2. Capillary Effect 3. Self Perpetual motion 1. Fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is related to the fluids that are in motion and forces acting on them. Fluid mechanics has two branches fluid statics and fluid dynamics. In Fluid Mechanics we actually observe fluid motion and calculation of the effect of forces on motion of fluid. It is category of continuum mechanics in which we study models matter without using the information about atomic structure. FM is an active area of research with many problems left to be solved. 1.1 Main…
My first interaction with fluid mechanics came when I was in 1st year. My curiosity about fluid mechanics rose up while performing experiments in the lab with my own hands. In addition, course on hydrodynamics and hydrodynamics lab allowed me to visualize different flow patterns and flow properties and showed me how the flow pattern can be expressed in mathematical equations. I found the opportunity to take the course of Computational Fluid Mechanics & Theory of Hydrofoils because of my good…
of pressure on a vertical rectangular surface. SKETCH OF APPARATUS Counterbalance weight Balance pan(with 20g mass piece) Flat/curved surface(as shown below) Water Beaker Mass pieces(20g each) SUMMARY OF THEORY Hydrostatic force is the force exerted by the pressure of a fluid which is at rest on a surface. A fluid which is contact with a solid surface will exert a hydrostatic force in all small area of the surface and this…
Objectives With the use of similar apparatus equipment through constant temperature at atmospheric pressure, the viscosity will be determined by tests in two different fluids in sets of two ball trials; along with data collected from a third set. By reducing errors and obstructions it will justify data for better discuss and calculated results, supporting the theory beyond the lab report to resonate in helping others comprehend the experiment. Procedure The experiment was…
Take for instance a red plastic cup that is full of liquid. Now consider removing a circle of plastic from the bottom of the cup with the diameter of a regular pencil. How long will it take to drain all of the water? How much liquid is falling from the cup each second? Because of the work that has been done in fluid dynamics, we have a simple formula to help us answer these questions. Q=aC2gh In which Q represents the flow rate, a represents the cross sectional area of the hole, C is a…
differential equation, which was known as: Reynolds Equation [11]. The formation and basic mechanism of fluid film was analyzed by that experiment on taking some important assumptions given as: [a] The fluid film thickness is very small as compare to the axial and longitudinal dimensions of fluid film. [b] If the lubricant layer is to transmit pressure between the shaft and the bearing, the layer must have varying thickness. Later Osborne Reynolds himself derived an improved version of Reynolds…
In sub-critical flow transition, the emphasis is essentially to provide smooth and gradual changes in the boundary to prevent flow separation and consequent energy losses. Even if slight change the curvature in transition, the boundary zone of the retarded liquid expands rapidly. Its impact on velocity distributions which become highly uneven with corresponding large values of energy coefficient (α) & momentum coefficient () and fluid flow may fail completely to flow the channel walls. Several…
All fluids have its resistance to relative motion between surfaces and is called Viscosity. This property is about the friction between the particles of a fluid. A fluid that is forced in a tube has the liquid moving faster as it is closer the axis of the tube and slower when farther from it. 3.1.1 Dimensionless Parameters In analysis of convection heat transfer, it is convenient to convert to non-dimensional the governing equations and combine the variables, which makes the group of…
Viscosity and Flow Rate by Hasnain S. and Vinh T. What is Viscosity: Viscosity is the measurement of how fast a fluid will flow. In other words, it is the “thickness” or “thinness” of a fluid. The internal friction or resistance it has as well as the temperature in which the fluid is at determines the viscosity of the substance as well. If there is more internal resistance or friction, then the particles of the substance won’t slid past each other as easily and therefore make the substance…
What chracterizes the axial flow turbine is its rotation axis. It could be placed vertically or horizontally to water surface. In this latter type the axis is parallel positioned to the incoming water stream. Also the generator can be submerged under water or non-submerged. This turbine is usually used as tidal energy converter. For small river use, the axis could be an angle inclined to the water stream. See figure \ref{Hydro_HorizontalAxis}. Hydrokinetic converters with a vertical axis…