External carotid artery

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    Explain how atherosclerotic plaque is formed. Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large and intermediate sized arteries, where fatty lesions called atheromatous plaques develop on the inside surfaces of arterial walls. It is characterised by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and an accumulation of lipids, calcium, cholesterol, and cellular debris within the intima wall - making it a multifactorial disease that usually develops many years before manifestation of clinical symptoms.…

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    that are associated with coronary circulation are the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery. These two major arteries bifurcate off of the Aorta and encircle the heart ultimately meeting at the coronary sinus. The left main coronary artery which runs across the left side of the heart and passes between the pulmonary trunk and left auricle gives origin to two smaller coronary arteries: the anterior interventricular artery (Also…

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    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) occur when alveoli of the lungs are filled with fluids due to severe injury or illness. This fluid buildup instead of air in the alveolar air sacs causes decreased level of oxygen transfer from the lungs to the blood stream. A chest x-ray will show clinical appearance of acute pulmonary edema without elevated left atrial pressure or cardiogenic causes (Brochard, 2011). This will cause a severe deprivation of oxygen to vital organs and leads to…

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    The uptake of oxygen into muscles is what facilitates muscle contraction. Oxygen that is obtained through breathing by the lungs is transported to the rest of the body, as well as the heart by means of haemoglobin. The rate of liberation of oxygen from haemoglobin has an effect on the quantity of oxygen available in the muscles for a muscle contraction to ensue. The higher the oxygen concentration in the muscle the greater the force of muscle contraction. Temperature has an effect on the…

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    Aneurysm Essay

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    Severe pain of sudden onset could be caused by a dissecting aneurysm in the aorta. Distal dissection presents as interscapular pain whilst proximal dissection causes anterior chest pain. Likewise, a spontaneous pneumothorax may result in sudden severe pain and dyspnoea. Patient’s may describe a sudden intense pain followed by less intense sharp pain that is localised to one side of the chest. Chest wall and pleuritic pain increases with inspiration and is localised to a small area. Pain is…

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    Australians relishes fairly high levels of health compared to many other countries. Statistics reveal that Australia has a moderately long-life expectancy, declining mortality rates and reasonable access to health care. We measure health status through the process of data and information collection known as epidemiology, which is the study of disease in groups or populations to identify patterns and trends. The measurement of epidemiology includes life expectancy, mortality, morbidity and infant…

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    Footstrike Hemolysis Footstrike hemolysis happens when red blood cells in the foot break down faster than usual. This is usually due to repeated contact between the foot and the ground. This condition often happens to long-distance runners. It can also happen to other athletes, including dancers and hikers. This condition may also be called march hemoglobinuria. This condition may cause part of the red blood cells (hemoglobin) to appear in the urine, making the urine red (hematuria). In most…

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    Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera (PV) is a form of blood cancer. Another name for this type of disease is myeloproliferative disease. This means your bone marrow produces too many red blood cells. Bone marrow is the spongy center of long bones where blood cells are produced. If you have PV, your bone marrow may also make too many white blood cells and clotting cells (platelets). Almost all people with PV have an abnormal gene (genetic mutation) that causes changes in the way the bone…

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    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is also known as Diastolic Heart Failure, this “is characterized by restrictive filling and reduced diastolic volume of either [one] or both ventricles with normal or near normal systolic function and wall thickness.” There are many types of Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common type. The tell-tale sign of RCM is diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction is when the heart does not fill up correctly, either too slowly or too quickly.…

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    The heart is one of the strongest muscles in the human body. It is mostly made up of cardiac muscle, which causes the contractions of the heart, or heartbeat. The cardiac muscle works constantly to pump blood throughout the body and is one of the three major types of muscle. The cells in the heart are closely connected so that they all beat at the same time, and they form the thick middle layer of the heart, in between the outer epicardium and the inner endocardium layers. There are two main…

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