Experimental analysis of behavior

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    The learner functions in a similar manner. Inputs arrive at the CPU via some environmental stimuli, processed, stored in memory, and then outputs are derived from the way that information is interpreted. Like the behaviorist, CPI seeks to understand how the environment modifies behavior. The difference between the two is CPI assumes an intervening amongst behavior and environment. There are three recognized types of memory, which are sensory, working or short-term, and long-term. How this information moves between these types of memory is what is most…

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    successfully shape the behavior of pressing a lever for delivery of a food pellet, consecutive days of training must take place with the use of fixed-ratio scheduling for the rat to successfully press the lever repeatedly. In a 4 day study over the span of four weeks, it is difficult to achieve shaping a rat to press a lever consistently for the reward of food pellet when there were only four available lab days which were not consecutive. Positive…

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    the process of change in behavior resulting from observation, practice, and maturation (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia). There are two identified forms of learning, associative and cognitive, both are controlled by the brain. Specifically, classical and operant conditioning are two methods of associative learning models that psychologist Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner heuristically contributed to the understanding of human behavior. Ivan Pavlov’s significant contribution was…

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    conditioning dogs with a bell, hungry rats in a box and hours of research, he decided that the basic drive for behavior is reinforced. Skinner defined two types of behavior. Respondent behavior, or “responses made to or elicited by a specific environmental stimuli” (Schultz & Schultz, 2013, p. 321). These responses are unlearned and happen automatically like reflex. Our book gives the example of the stimuli, a tap on the knee causes a response to occur, your leg to jerk. Another example could…

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    Progressive Muscle Relaxation Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) was first introduced by Dr. Edmund Jacobson in 1908 at Harvard University. However, it wasn’t until Jacobson published his book “Progressive Muscle Relaxation” in 1929 when Jacobson listed the step by steps directions involved to achieving relaxation. The idea of PMR came to Jacobson when he was conducting research on patients suffering from anxiety at the Harvard University. Jacobson once said, “An anxious mind cannot exist in…

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    techniques. Skinner believed that the use of positive reinforcement helped to shape a beings behavior verses punishment. He proved his theory when he trained his rats to push a lever by frequent and scheduled rewards and birds to peck plates using his positive reinforcement ideas. He wanted to take his knowledge of positive reinforcement and apply it to mankind and to improve mankind’s behavior and learning technique. Skinner stayed away from punishment because of the negative outcomes it lead…

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    Theorist Biosketch: B.F Skinner The study of human behavior is a very intriguing subject within the field of psychology that has led to the production of various theories, approaches, and studies to understand its anatomy thoroughly. In particular, Behaviorism, which was introduced within the twentieth century, revolves around the concepts that environments determine individuals’ behaviors. One of America’s very own prominent psychologist, as well as, behaviorist, was B.F Skinner. Skinner…

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    they have been praised and complimented on their good grades and intelligence. However, this type of praise and compliment is not the key to success in schoolwork and life. The most important key to success lies in the focus on effort not praises and compliments based off how well a child does on something, such as a game or test. Behavioral psychology or more commonly referred to as behaviorism explains why putting forth effort is important. Behaviorism falls under the category of a school of…

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    Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which a person modifies their behavior through positive and negative consequences, or as a result of positive and negative reinforcement. Unlike classical conditioning where behaviors are reflexive and involuntary, operant conditioning is a voluntary behavior. In 1905, Edward L. Thorndike conducted an experiment where he placed a hungry cat inside a “puzzle box”, and a food dish on the outside. The cat upon pressing a lever could free itself from…

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    John Broadus Watson was an American psychologist as well as a radical environmental determinist. He believed that humans could be “conditioned” like training animals. Watson promoted a upcoming change in psychology through a behaviourist approach. Based on Pavlov’s observations ,Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning could explain all aspects of human psychology. Watson whole heartedly denied the existence of the mind and consciousness. According to Watson different…

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