European Union law

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    The principle of direct effect in EU law stems from the formation of the European Union and its creation of overarching rules amongst its member states. These overarching rules are created in competence by the member states in order to achieve ‘…objectives that they have in common.’ In order to execute these common objectives, the principle of direct effect holds each member state accountable for the laws decided as a collective through the implementation of the European Court of Justice against member states. Various articles in the Treaty on European Union emphasize the idea of the member states acting as a collective unit for the betterment of the European Community and the structure of the relationship between the union and its member states. However, the exact implementation of laws decided as a collective union and the consequences of not implementing European law on a national level is not explicitly stated in the treaties regarding the establishment and functioning of the European Union. The principle of direct effect rather evolved from individual circumstances where individuals or organizations implemented European Union law on a national level. The judgement by the European Court of Justice on the Algemene Transporten Expeditie Onderneming van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen was one of the first steps in the…

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    In this essay I will be examining the principle of direct effect and supremacy. I will be discussing how they were created and their development also the relationship between the two. I will start off by defining them first, then stating how they were created and developed and lastly discussing their relationship. Direct effect is the principle that Union law may, if appropriately framed, confer rights on individuals which the courts of member states of the European Union are bound to recognise…

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    The European Union and North American Free Trade Agreement The European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) are two regional trade agreements that promote the trade of goods, people, and services across borders. Both of these regional trade agreements help their member regions reduce or eliminate trade restrictions, quotas, and tariffs. By implementing regional trade agreements, the member regions can improve their economy and promote trade growth throughout the…

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    “Brexit” and the European Union On June 24th, 2016, The United Kingdom voted in a historic referendum which caused the countries of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland to leave the European Union. “Brexit”, as the referendum was nicknamed, was strongly supported by England and Wales, while Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to stay within the European Union. Even in countries where the overall result was to support Brexit, the margins were small, with an overall split of only 51.9%…

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    The European Union is able to pass and govern laws, most of which are the same within most countries which are in the European Union. The European Union also creates a platform for European Countries to trade, export and import their goods into each other’s country without any difficulties which then is able to boost a countries economy as their might be a demand of that certain product within that country. The European Union is able to free movement across Europe for EU citizens allowing…

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    able to make decisions and set laws without the restriction or influence of an outside force – which is in this case the European Union. So now that the British Public have voted to leave the Union, where does the power sit? As of this moment, the UK has not invoked Article 50 – and is therefore still in the EU and, legally, in the same position that it was in before the referendum. And, most importantly in reference to UK Sovereignty, the 1972 European Communities Act, passed in the Commons,…

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    The Maastricht Treaty

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    Following the second world war, the European economy and infrastructure were severely devastated. Europe had the mindset of avoiding any further damage and deaths in their land. Leading them to begin moving forward towards a more peaceful Europe. Over decades of treaty making and attempts to collaborate with one another, eventually, the Maastricht Treaty was created in 1992. This new treaty was put into effect in 1993 providing unity to twenty-seven member states. Giving the world the birth of…

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    In 2004 the European Union first established a European Agency for the management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union ‘Frontex’ . Frontex was created by the Council regulation (EC) 2007/2004 and was adopted on 26 October 2004 and started its operation on 1 May 2005. It is recognised as the European Union border control agency. Frontex was established to facilitate measures relating to the management of EU member States external borders,…

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    A British exit from the European Union may be on the horizon, however it will be a very difficult choice for Prime Minister David Cameron. A British exit has it’s pros and cons and if Britain 's choses to stay or leave the European Union will have the country divided, it seems as if staying in the European Union would be the smarter choice for many reasons. Staying in the European Union may have some financial benefits, but the overall freedom and happiness of the the British population will…

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    ‘Parliamentary sovereignty is a constitutional relic. It has been rendered obsolete, in particular, by the supremacy of EU law and the UK’s statutory recognition of human rights. We should no longer talk about this irrelevant doctrine.’ Parliamentary sovereignty is a principle of the UK constitution, it is legislated by the House of Commons, House of Lords and the Queen; it is usually perceived as the most important aspect of the UK constitution, “The supremacy of Parliament is the…

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