European Court of Justice

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    of the courts, court procedures and the funding of legal aid. (Scottish Parliament Information Centre, 2014). In Scotland, there are 3 main types of civil courts, namely, the Sheriff Courts, Court of Session and since 2009 the UK Supreme Court. By far the most important and most widely used court in Scotland is the Sheriff Court. Since 1975, Scotland has been divided into 6 sheriffdoms with 142 sheriffs in post, there are currently 39 Sheriff Courts…

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    The European Union is an organization wherein its structure and decision-making roots back to the concepts of spuranationalism and intergoventmentalism and the experiences it gained in the past; now it stands as effective cultural and monetary center but fail in foreign and security policy as it faces critiques. In definition supranationalism entails how the European Union is an organization that has power “above the nation”. It stands as an organization that has power independent of the…

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    In November 2000, the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into the UK law through the Human Rights Act of 1998. The Human Rights Convention came into effect in 1953 and was technically ratified by the UK in 1966 when it recognised the compulsory jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights . The Convention outlines fundamental human rights, including: right to life, freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment, freedom from slavery or forced labour, freedom of…

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    Intro The emergence of indigenous courts captures the general public’s attention. Not only deploying innovative practices of justice, it acknowledges the devastating and enduring effects that indigenous people suffer since the period of colonization. Indigenous people continue to be disproportionately disadvantaged in the society. Since the early 90s, nations such as Australia and Canada begin to be more aware of the difficulties that indigenous people have confronted such as the effects of…

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    Parliamentary Sovereignty

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    constitution of the United Kingdom has long been a source for debate due to the fact that unlike many other nations the United Kingdom keeps no single constitutional document and instead has an uncodified constitution comprising mainly of Acts of Parliament, court judgments and conventions. The need for a codified constitution never arose in the United Kingdom as the country has been stable for too long, its democracy has developed over a long period of time rather than through a revolution.…

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    uncomplimentary efforts. Each system component police, courts, and corrections has varying degrees of responsibility and discretion for dealing with crime. Often a federal, state, or local system component fails to engage in any coordinated planning effort; hence, relations among and between these elements are often characterized by friction, conflict, and deficient communication are stifled (Peak, pg, 5). Many individuals who are involved in the criminal justice system experience social…

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    across European countries, however it may generally be understood as the age a ‘child is considered capable of committing a crime and old enough to stand trial and be convicted of a criminal offence ‘(NSPCC.2016). The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales is 10, whilst in Italy it is 14, meaning in England and Wales, a child can be charged for committing a criminal offence aged 10, however in Italy, a 10 year old would not be charged. Furthermore, the ways in which the youth…

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    Magistrates Court

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    The Magistrates’ Court is the lowest court in England. It deals mainly with minor criminal such as vandalism and drink driving. All cases begin in the magistrates’ court, and more than 90% of them will be completed there. It also can deal with offences like burglary and drug offences. These are called either-way offences and they can either be heard in the Magistrates’ Court or they can be passed on to the crown court. The Crown Court deals with more serious criminal acts such as murder and…

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    The European Union Introduction The European Union (EU) evolved from a regional economic agreement between six neighboring states, to today’s supranational organization of 28 nations across the European continent. These six states often accorded founding nation status include France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, Germany, and Italy. The lasting peace that has in the past half a century prevailed in Europe can largely be attributed to the formation of the European Union. As a matter of fact,…

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    Leases over 3years must be registered with land register but a licence is terminated whenever requested by the owner. Unless a tenant has exclusive possession there is no lease but a mere licence. This can be shown in the case Street v Mountford [1985], where Ms Wendy Mountford had concluded an agreement with the landlord for exclusive residential occupation (of…

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