Enzyme kinetics

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    Enzymes are known as catalysts that cause reactions to occur more rapidly by lowering the reaction’s activation energy. A reaction’s activation energy is known as the minimum amount of energy required to get a chemical reaction started1. In order for cells to efficiently manage thousands of different chemical reactions, they make use of biological catalysts. Without these catalysts, biological reactions would not be able to proceed at a proper rate necessary to maintain life. Most, but not all, catalysts are made up of proteins that increase the rate of reactions within a system. Like most proteins, structure determines function. Therefore, the functionality of a catalyst depends heavily on how the proteins are folded2. Enzyme kinetics is known as the study of how biological catalysts are able to increase the rate at which reactions are performed. Reaction rates are typically measured as the amount of products produced per unit of time for a single given concentration3. Enzyme kinetics can be affected by the concentration of the substrate, the presence of inhibitors, as well as changes in temperature, and in pH. A substrate is known as the substance that is catalyzed by an enzyme2. An increase in substrate concentration leads to an increase in product formation due to a greater amount…

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    Henri-Michaelis–Menten (HMM) and simple single-substrate enzyme kinetics model explored in different directions for more than a century. In the current paper we are concerned with a possible generalization of this rate equation which projected by F. Kargi , that is assumed to be useful both in the case that the total enzyme or substrate is in excess and the quasi-steady-state is produced. We conclude that this generalization is not enough dramatically and put another generalization based on…

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    Introduction Affinity Chromatography, also referred to as biospecific chromatography, is a technique of partitioning rooted in biological affinity (Dean). This practice capitalizes on complex interactions such as bond formation between enzymes and substrate, or more broadly: macromolecules and ligands. Purification is at the center of the use of affinity chromatography. In general, samples may be run through a gel that contains a corresponding component that binds with the sample at certain…

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    Haldane Reaction Lab Report

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    HALDANE RELATIONSHIP AND ONE-WAY ENZYMES  INTRODUCTION: Most of the enzyme catalyzed biological reactions are reversible in nature. However, an enzyme may prefer to catalyze the reaction more efficiently in one direction over the other under given physiological concentrations of substrate or product (substrate in the reverse direction). An enzyme favouring a virtual unidirectional catalysis of an overall reversible reaction can’t escape the laws of thermodynamics. As a catalyst doesn’t change…

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    things, many biological processes are too inefficient to occur on their own. With the help of enzymes, or protein catalysts, the efficiency of these chemical reactions becomes much greater having less of an effect on the cells they occur in. Enzymes help to increase the overall rate of these reactions by lowering the energy needed to activate this process during the transitional phase. They can do this without being consumed or permanently altered by the reaction, as well as not disrupting the…

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    Catalase Lab Report

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    Interpretation 1. Theoretical Lab Discussion This lab occurs due to enzyme kinetics, and the kinetics molecular theory. Enzyme kinetics is the study of chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes, and during the experiments, the reaction rate was measured by the effects of the varying conditions the substrate was in. Influence of Catalase Concentration The higher the concentration of the enzyme catalase, the function of the enzyme occurs better. As the number of disks increased, the…

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    the productivity and function of the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase will be examined. Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme commonly produced and found throughout the entire human body. Its main function is the cleaving of phosphate groups from mostly organic molecules, including proteins, nucleotides and even alkaloids, which makes it a hydrolase enzyme (Ellis, 2016). In biochemistry, a hydrolase enzyme is an enzyme that speeds up the hydrolysis of complex biomolecules like proteins, starch and fats…

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    Enzymes Lab

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    the maximal velocity (Vmax) and the inhibition of alkaline phosphate. In order to accomplish these goals, 5 samples were used. Each sample contained different volumes of 0.2 m MPNPP (p-nitrophenylphosphate) and 0.2 M Tris-Hcl at a pH of 8.0. To each sample 0.2 mL of the enzyme studied (Alkaline Phosphatase) were added upon insertion on the spectrophotometer apparatus. With intervals of 20 seconds their absorbance at a wavelength of 410 nm was recorded at time frame of 2 minutes for each…

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    surpass for the reaction to occur (Mathew Bui et al. 2006). Temperature and catalysts are the most basic ways to overcome activation energy (Barnhart and Hopper 2011). They help provide the reaction with the extra push it needs to get the reaction going. More specifically temperature deals with the kinetic energy form heat, the more reactant molecules that rise over the activation energy level the faster the reaction occurs. Catalysts lower the activation energy level allowing the reaction to…

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    Simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) of sweet sorghum juice is a multi-step process and interactions between enzymes inside the yeast and the complex substrate. In addition, SHF also undergoesmechanisms by the product and other components inside the substrate. The process, interactions, and as well as inhibition mechanism of SHF are not fully understood. A modified kinetics model based on those reported by Philippidis [24] and Shadbahr [17] were used in this study to quantify the…

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