Enlightened absolutism

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    Historians often refer to absolutist monarch Joseph II of Austria (1741-1790) as an enlightened despot due to the numerous social reforms he instilled during his reign. Joseph commissioned countless works of propaganda that showcase his enlightened ideology, yet it is through one of these images that one can also see the ironies that invalidate the possibility of an effective enlightened despot. The authority of a despot relies on his ability to secure his own power, while a true Enlightenment thinker would prioritize the rights of the people over their own. Joseph II attempted to balance these two concepts, but because they are so inherently contradictory, he could never fully dedicate himself to either cause, rendering many of his policies ineffective.…

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    Classical and Enlightened Absolutism in France Comparison The motherland of absolutism in Europe of the 17th century is considered to be France. The absolute monarchy spread the idea of the state as a public good, a sovereign legal person. There was no longer a place for patrimonial ideas, the state as the property of the ruler. In the days of Richelieu, the first minister of king Louis XIII,(1585 -1642) and especially Louis XIV (1643-1715), the absolute monarchy attained the bloom. The views…

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    Enlightened Absolutism

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    The Enlightenment, also known as the “Age of Reason”, was an intellectual phenomenon characterized by, “empirical reasoning and critical thought” with the primary focus of benefiting the greater common good (Voltaire). Being one of the most prominent enlightened absolutists, Joseph II of Austria was one of the few rulers to consistently apply humanity and reason to govern his nation. Joseph II was noted for his unconventional reforms and decrees that permitted religious tolerance, social…

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    Napoleon Case Study

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         Enlightened despotism is when there is an absolute ruler, in some cases a tyrant, who follows the principles of the Enlightenment through reforms. Permitting religious toleration, allowing freedom of the press and speech, and expanding education are a few main guidelines to being and enlightened despot. Napoleon I is often referred to as one of the greatest enlightened despots. Although, he did not follow the ideas of the enlightenment entirely, he managed his…

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    Enlightened ideas spread through the lower class and eventually spread to the upper class as well. Although rulers were influenced by the ideas of the enlightenment, the philosophy did not completely take over the style of ruling in Europe. Rulers were not ready to lose their power and their people were not all ready to radical change society. Before the French revolution, the world had trouble experiencing such a radical change. Without a guideline and example for change, the people of Europe…

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    In his treatise The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu critiques the enlightened idea that every individual is reasonable and “educable.” Montesquieu states in the first book of his treatise that, “Before there were intelligent beings, they were possible; they had therefore possible relations, and consequently possible laws.” While Montesquieu is not contesting the idea that individuals are reasonable, he is stating that individuals are reasonable according to the physical nature that surrounds…

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    with the changes occurring around him in Paris. Baldini is very disturbed by the changes taking place in Paris "People reading books, even women”. The new intellectualism and humanism, not to mention the rise of the bourgeoisie, threatens everything that Baldini believes in and values. Baldini represents the ideas of ‘tradition’ and ‘reluctance to change’. This is shown by his disgust at the way Grenouille initially displays his talent for perfumes by mixing Amor and Psyche. In the book, genius…

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    form of the absolutism of monarchy. Some examples of leaders during this time period was Frederick the Great, Maria Theresa, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II. These were the Most Enlightened Absolutism Leaders during the period and they did several important things that led them to become one of the most memorable people in European history. To be an Enlightened Monarch, these leaders will need to have their own ideals on how to develop the country and how they are able to bring success to…

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    right or wrong (Klampfer, 2001). Therefore, in this regard, people who like to undergo euthanasia should act accordingly to be assisted to end their life, because the consequences of their choices does not make them right or wrong but the motives of the person that does. In his case the motives of the person is to end their life because they are undergoing unbearable pain and they have the right to choose to end their life. Kant further argues that the results of an act of willing cannot be…

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    German philosopher, Arthur Schopenhaur once said, “Compassion is the basis of morality” (Morality). As Schopenhaur’s quote suggests, morality is based in the ideas of having compassion for the wrongdoings committed against those around you, and this presence of such compassion is require to have sound morality. Morality is the acceptance and obeying of the standards of what is deemed right due to the moral expectations placed on an individual or society. In Phillip Dick’s Do Androids Dream of…

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