Endoderm

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    Epithelium Essay

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    Aim 1: Analyzing the formation of the epithelium of visceral endoderm surrounding the internal cavity in locally-instructed embryoids Sub-aim 1.1: Investigating the formation of an endodermal epithelium around the cavity Rationale: VE is derived from PrE, an epithelial tissue that separates the ICM from the blastocoel. PrE and Epiblast (Epi) cells exist in a ‘salt and pepper’ manner in the ICM by E3.5, which can be visualized by the complementary expression patterns of Gata6 (PrE) and Nanog (Epi) (Chazaud et al., 2006). The PrE cells are sorted from the ICM through differential adhesion (Gerbe et al., 2008) and cortical tension (Moore et al., 2009) and become a morphologically distinct tissue by E4.5. PrE/VE epithelial tissue surrounds in the…

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    to revert cells back to totipotency or pluripotency (Image from: Mitalipov & Wolf, 2009). Totipotency, depicted by its name as total power is the ability to produce and differentiate into any type of cells found in the organism (Figure 1). This type of stem cell has the ability to recreate the whole organism. When an egg is fertilized by a sperm, it creates a totipotent cell (also known as a zygote) (Asch, Simerly, Ord, Ord, & Schatten, 1995). The totipotent cell will develop to different…

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    Introduction The gastrointestinal system (digestive system) is the alimentary tract from the mouth to the anus with its associated glands and organs (Moore, 2016) It originates from two germ layers, the endoderm and mesoderm, and receives nerve supply by cells derived from the third germ layer, the ectoderm(van den Brink, 2007) (McLin et al., 2009) The earliest stage of development is the ‘primordial gut’ which forms during the 4th week as the head, tail (caudal eminence) and lateral folds.…

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    The three layers (germ layers) are called ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (Biology.OpenStax.1755). The final stage is organogenesis (important stage) when the three germ layers of the gastrula develop various body organs (Biology.OpenStax.1756). During this stage, the brain, skin, and nervous system arises from the ectoderm, while the blood cells, heart, and muscle cells rise to the mesoderm. The digestive system, liver, and other internal organs give rise to the endoderm…

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    Flatworm Essay

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    Many roundworm species are free-living. They have a body cavity that is between the endoderm and mesoderm tissues. The endoderm germ layer is like an internal layer and the mesoderm germ layer is like a middle layer. The body cavity is known as a pseudocoelom, due to it only being relatively lined with the mesoderm tissue. Roundworms have a digestive tract that consists of two openings, which are a mouth and an anus. Roundworms need to depend on diffusion, or the natural spreading of particles…

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    repair system, stem cells divide nonstop in order to replenish other cells throughout the persons’ lifetime. When a stem cell divides, each new cell may either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, thus they are a tremendously serious matter, not just in the USA, but all around the world. There are two different types of stem cells: embryonic and adult. Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells which come from a 5 day before implantation…

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    Chordata Research Paper

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    Chordata is a phylum of the animal kingdom that includes animals possessing notochord, pharyngeal gill slit and dorsal tubular nerve cord. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson (1885), it was already prevalent around 1880. Phylum Chordata, though not the largest, is the most diverse phylum in the animal kingdom. Chordates are cosmopolitan and are well represented in marine, freshwater as well as terrestrial habitats from the equator to the high northern and southern…

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    The Underlying biology of Chimera Stem Cells: 1. The blastocyst helps make the different parts of the embryo inner cell mass, which in turn helps to make the embryo proper 2. The trophectoderm and primitive endoderm make extra embryonic structures that support the growth of the embryo 3. Two to eight cell stage embryos are used for making chimeras, since they aren’t committed to helping a particular cell lineage and could possible make the inner cell mass or trophectoderm 4. If two diploid eight…

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    Their are different hormones that help in the process of pregnancy , which are called pregnancy hormones the main hormones heard about when pregnancy hormones are mentioned are HCG ( Human Chorionic gonadotropin) ,Progesterone , prolactin and estrogen . HCG is the hormone responsible for keeping the structure of where the embryo will develop at early stages (called corpus luteum) from being shed and absorbed back into the body.HCG also stimulates the secretion of progesterone and estrogen by…

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    Planarians are triploblastic acoelomates, meaning they have three tissue layers, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm (Newmark and Alvarado, 2001). Their epidermal layer that surrounds the planarian is ciliated on the ventral surface (Newmark and Alvarado, 2001). Underneath the epidermal layer and the basal lamina, followed by a complex wall musculature that surrounds the body. The complex wall muscle is composed of the circular diagonal and muscle fibers (Newmark and Alvarado, 2001). The nervous…

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