Distillation

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    starting with 30 mL of an unknown mixture of two solvents, fractional distillation and gas chromatography were used to identify the unknowns as acetone and toluene in a 1 to 2.04 ratio of acetone to toluene. Fractional distillation was first used to separate the unknown mixture into its components based on boiling point. Distillation refers to the method of separating components of a mixture through heating and cooling. Simple distillation, which is especially useful in the separation of…

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    Dehydration Lab Report

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    Experimental: Fractional distillation is setup by adding 25.0 ml of 2-methylcyclohexanol in a 100-ml round bottom flask and to this 10 ml of 9 M sulfuric acid is added which acts a catalyst to this reaction. The content is swirled is completely for about 2 minutes periodically. Then 3 boiling chips is added to the mixture, now starts the fraction distillation. The mixture is heated with a heating mantle for distillation to occur. It is heated until 10-ml of the mixture remains…

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    The dehydration of Cyclohexanol requires going through an acid-catalyzed elimination of water for the synthesis of cyclohexane from cyclohexanol. To get cyclohexane from cyclohexanol you must remove the cycloalkane with fractional distillation, drying with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and analyzed by GC data and the bromine test. The reaction we are trying to accomplish going from cyclohexanol to cyclohexene is a secondary alcohol going through an E1 reaction. This is the unimolecular…

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    Fractional distillation is a common method for separating components of a mixture by utilizing their boiling points to aid in the separation. As a mixture is heated, the component with the lower boiling point in the mixture vaporize, while the higher boiling point component will remain in solution. These vapors will rise to a cooler area where they will condense and this liquid will then be collected; this is known as the distillate. Eventually, the lower boiling component will boil off, and the…

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    Distillation is a method used to purify a liquid. Distillation is a process of heating a liquid to boiling and then collecting the condensed vapors from the boiling liquid in a different vessel. After the setting up the glassware for the simple distillation I found the boiling points for each four fractions. The boiling point range for the first fraction was 29.3°C to 29.5°C. The boiling point range for the second fraction was 31.1°C to 40.6°C. The boiling point range for the third fraction was…

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    Cyclohexene Lab Report

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    Cyclohexene distillation A fraction containing primarily cyclohexene primarily cyclohexene and water is separated from raw cyclohexanone in Cyclohexene column. Raw Cyclohexanone is fed from storage tank to Cyclohexene Column via Cyclohexene heater. In Cyclohexene Heater, the feed is heated up to about 1200C with the heat carried by the bottom product from Alcohols column. The Cyclohexene column is operated at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 850C at top and 1650C at bottom. The vapours…

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    Cinnamaldehyde Lab Report

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    with a cork (for diethyl ether evaporates quickly) and sat for a few minutes. During this time, a simple distillation apparatus was set up. A 50-mL flask was pre-weighed at 55.27 g. The oil and solvent mixture was filtered into the flask using filter paper and a funnel. It was then placed in a hot bath to distill off the diethyl ether until only cinnamaldehyde remained. When the distillation was finished, the diethyl ether was disposed of while the flask containing the oil cooled down. When it…

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    Anti Bumping Lab Report

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    throughout both the reflux process and the distillation process. Without adding these granules, bubbles of vapour may be difficult to form due to both process being conducted in a very clean, smooth glassware. Then all of a sudden a large bubble may form and disturb the liquid violently. Therefore the anti-bumping granules help prevent this ‘bumping’ which may disturb the boiling process (Halesowen.ac.uk). This is important in both the reflux and distillation processes as in both case, these…

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    In older times, wooden casks were used primarily as a way to transport and store the liquor before relatively quick consumption. Indeed, there wasn't really an aim at first to try and manipulate the flavors through aging in wooden barrels after distillation in superior quality moonshine stills. In fact, most of the liquor was usually consumed before the aging process was able to work its magic upon the drink. However, as time went on, there would be some barrels of whiskey that wouldn't be…

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    In the design of the ethanol production plant, the fermenter, flash drum, absorption column, and distillation columns were the only process units considered in great detail. Other process units significant in the overall material balances and design were the starch extraction, starch hydrolysis, and adsorption units. Material Processing Details The material feedstock comprises of roughly 6250 kg/h of potato waste, which is put through the starch extraction unit in order to isolate the 18% by…

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