Australian Rail Track Corporation LTD 2005 define a railway ballast as; free draining coarse aggregate or metallurgical slag used to support railway tracks. It is recommended that ballast should be “hard durable and as far as possible angular along edges/corners, free from weathered portions of parent rock, organic impurities and inorganic residues” (Reference) Rocks which contain minerals which are deemed harmful to the longevity and behaviour of the ballasts may be rejected following petrographic or durability testing.
Shape and size
It is recommended that ballast material be as cubical in shape as possible, and that percentage of retained irregular grans not exceed 30% when ballast material is tested using the 9.50mm test sieve.
Sieve size (mm) % passing by mass
Particle size distribution (Australian Rail Track Corporation LTD 2005)
The proportion of flaky particles in the ballast material retained on the 6.70mm test sieve shall not exceed 30%
The percentage of weak particles when tested shall not exceed 5%
The wet attrition value…
- Compound X is a white powder. It is a solid.
- What is compound X?
- What will happen when compound X is heated and reacted with C20H14O4 (phenolphthalein – an acid-base indicator)? (1)
- How does compound X react with C20H14O4 (phenolphthalein)? (2)
- How does compound X react with water? (3)
- How does compound X react with hydro chloric acid (HCL)? (4)
- Compound X is calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
- (1) When compound X is heated and reacted with…
Initially, the most striking feature of Eroded Rock, Point Lobos, a gelatin silver print by Edward Weston, is its relationship between positive and negative space. The photo’s subject is an eroded rock, whose rough, raised plateaus create a light positive space and emerge from smooth, blackened sections of the eroded rock which create the image’s negative space. These sections of eroded rock envelop the plateaus in languid serpentine lines, almost as though the plateaus are land masses cast…
Particle size plays an important role in evaluating the quality and performance of a mineral processing plant (Horiba 2014, 1). It also influences many of the properties of a particulate such as its reaction rate with some reagents.
Particle size analysis is significant in determining the quality of ore grind and in establishing the degree of liberation of the valuable materials from the gangue (Haldar 2013, 227). This is done by mineral processing plants to ensure that the desired particle size…
The Relationship between Mineral Type and Density (g/ml)
The purpose of this lab was to understand the relationship between minerals and density, the ratio of mass to volume, particularly, how density can be used to identify mineral type. In the lab, two samples of the mineral, feldspar, were measured for mass and volume in order to calculate their density.
Many of the mineral tests yielded qualitative data, such as color, streak, luster, and crystal shape, which can be…
Earth is composed of many different components such as minerals, and rocks. These components have several different properties and characteristics which are unique to each. In this paper, I will discuss some of the different properties, characteristics, and uses of three different factors, those being gypsum, coal, and nickel.
Gypsum is derived from the Greek word gypsos which means plaster (Gypsum Meanings, Powers, and History). Gypsum is composed of oxygen, calcium, sulfur, and water…
There are both similarities and differences between the crystal structures and crystal chemistry of quartz, α-FePO4 and β-FePO4. One of the observed differences is that when the quartz is present at different temperatures. The α-FePO4 phase when present at low temperatures, tend towards the values obtained for β-FePO4 at high temperature. In addition, this case is true for all α quartz when at low temperature, in that it will tend to the values obtained for its respective β quartz experienced at…
Park Field Trip was a really great experience where you get to see many different types of rocks and many diverse examples of minerals. This trip happened on Saturday November 1, 2014. Several geology classes went to the field trip for the expedition, with the purpose of learning the different types of each rock and its minerals and also to identify the stones from oldest to youngest. The group leaders of this trip were several professors of geology. Professor Croxen, Garrett, Dr. B, did…
Isa orebody. When the oxidation was completed, the depth of the oxidized zone was around 50m from the ground surface (Forrestal, 1990). Cerussite was found as the dominant mineral while zinc was mostly exhausted. The orebodies’ bedded nature remained the same within the oxidized zone but the rocks are filtrated outside the oxidized zone. In addition, this oxidized ore were generally used for ancient production of mining a long time ago. But nowadays, this oxidized ore would only be used for…
We have travelled to the Morrison formation which is dated to be 150 million years old and the rocks have grain of sizes between clay-sized and 1mm. The Morrison formation has inconsistent lateral thickness as it has thick layers and goes down to thin layers and has tightly compressed sediments. To why we believe the place was roamed with dinosaur as the Morrison formation is deposited near a flooded river or lake which have soft soil for dinosaur to implant dinosaur prints and the site itself…