Global business today is subject to various kinds of risks. One risk that global business needs to handle is the foreign exchange risk. Foreign exchange risk is the risk that companies face a potential gain or loss due to the fluctuation of an exchange rate change. Companies could be subject to a significant financial loss even with a small change in the exchange rate. Thus, the primary purpose of managing foreign exchange risk is to mitigate potential currency losses. There are at least…
One of the first rules that is taught when learning Calculus is L’Hospital’s rule. The rule provides an easy technique to solve for a limit that has the indeterminate form 0/0. To get past this roadblock, L’Hospital’s rule allows for the individual differentiation of the numerator and denominator, and taking the limit of the result. If after the first application of the rule the limit once again produces the indeterminate form, it is possible to apply L’Hospital’s rule again. There is mystery…
Semra Özal CONNECTIONS OF LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS Logarithm and exponential functions have close relationship and they are inverse function of each other in a way. Before explicitly clarifying this inverse relationship, we should analyze their definitions. Logarithm means, in mathematics, “The exponent that indicates the power to which a base number is raised to produce a given number “2 Exponential function means that “mathematical function in which an…
The Mandelbrot and Filled Julia Sets The Mandelbrot and Filled Julia Sets are sets of numbers that are composed of complex numbers that do not diverge for varying conditions of the function fc(z)=z²+c. For the Mandelbrot set, the function is iterated from z=0. The filled Julia set holds c constant for any complex number to look at the behavior of the iterated functions for each value of z in the complex plane. Both sets are derived from the iterations of simple functions in the complex plane,…
The Cost-of-Carry Model In the commodity market the Cost of Carry model is used to price the futures and forwards contracts based on the spot price of the traded asset. The cost of carry is all the costs to carry an asset from the present until a certain future period, those are the cost to finance the asset (the interest), the storage costs, the transportation cost, and the insurance costs. The cost of carry model looks at the price of the future or forwardcontract as a function of the spot…
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1. What are the least, and most, amount of distinct zeroes of a 7th degree polynomial, given that at least one root is a complex number? Answer: If the equation is 7th degree then it has 7 roots. Those roots can be complex or real. Complex roots always come in pairs, so if it has one, then it has 2, the other one being the conjugate of the first one. This in other words, if one complex root is a + bi, then the other complex root is a – bi. If at least one root were complex, then we would have a…
Supply chains that are complex are commonly modeled as linear programs (LPs). They can effectively trade off broad range of criteria. To model FMCG supply chains accurately, one must include discrete aspects of decision making, which requires solving a mixed-integer program (MIP). It has become significantly important for managers, given the widespread use of linear models today, to be able to develop good, efficient models to aid them in the decision-making process. Three important factors;…
Change is inevitable. It is no secret that advancements in time and ideas are destined to change the status quo, but the foresight to analyze the gray area where change occurs is often times unknown because change does not come easy. From the world’s most renowned scholars in ancient Greece detesting the shift from oral-based rhetoric to writing, to influential elites hindering the printing press from breaking long-standing institutions, these examples parallel the modern case of writing…
2. The PZK Co will take out a forward exchange contract, the foreign exchange contract is define as an agreement of two sides to determine in a specified amount of currency exchange on a valid date. The advantages of PZK Co use forward contracts are that, the company can hedge their imports by locking the currency rate, to avoid the unfavourable exchange rate and fluctuations thus the company can make use of the forward contract to ensure the exchange rate is fixed at the deal day. Moreover, the…