ability of social media to aid communication.
The parents of Tamerlan and Dzhokhar, Zubeidat and Anzor Tsarnaev, influenced the violence and jihadist beliefs of their children. Zubeidat Tsarnaev was born in Dagestan in 1967, in a village largely involved with Salafism, but she identifies as Avar. Salafism is a strain of Islam where they believe in jihad and the physical struggle against nonbelievers. “She was like a gypsy, she had no identity,” said Ruslan Tsarni, her brother-in-law, when describing Zubeidat. Zubeidat was very controlling over the family as she went through phases of being a dedicated Muslim and wearing a hijab, to paying no attention to religion. Anzor Tsarnaev identified as Chechen, was raised as a traditional Muslim, and did not believe in extremism. Anzor and Zubeidat met in the early 1980s, while Anzor was serving a mandatory military term. The couple married in 1986 and then gave birth to Tamerlan in Kalmykia. When living in Kyrgyzstan, their daughter, Bella, was born in 1988, and their second daughter, Ailina, was born in 1990.
Tamerlan Tsarnaev, along with his two sisters and his parents, fled to Kyrgyzstan, where Dzhokhar was born in 1993. After living in in Kyrgyzstan, the Tsarnaev family moved to the Republic of Dagestan in 2001 because of unsafe living conditions and violence in Kyrgyzstan. In 2002, Tamerlan moved to Kazakhstan, a country in central Asia, with his two sisters and uncle. While Tamerlan was in Kazakhstan, Dzhokhar and…