# Cryptanalysis

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hacked fairly easily. As civilizations began to develop and technology improved, the ideas and methods became more advanced and mathematics began to be involved which started the idea of substitution where each letter was replaced with another. The most general substitution cipher has 26! amount of possibilities- this corresponds to around 10^(23) possibilities (Singh). This extremely high number made it impossible for the message to be cracked in the time it was popular, and even today it would take a computer and entire day to go through all of the possibilities and find the right one. Cryptography became more advanced and secretive which encouraged people to think outside the box on how to break the ciphers which is where the term cryptanalysis, or code breaking, came from. When substitution was still the primary form of encryption the cryptanalysts noticed that each replacement letter would take on all of characteristics of the old letter which allowed for frequency analysis to develop. Cryptanalysts noticed that the letter E was the most commonly used letter in the alphabet (13% of all letters used) so if the letter E was replaced by the letter W then W would appear 13% of the time. From here the cryptanalysts studied all of the letters in the alphabet to see which letters were most or least likely and from there could break the cipher of the messages they intercepted (Singh). Once this process was figured out it became easier to crack any substitution cipher because…

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Alan Turing was misunderstood, to say the least. The man we now regard as the father of modern computer science was heavily criticized and discouraged during his life for various reasons. Nonetheless, Turing was an incomparable mathematician way ahead of his time, and he made major contributions to the math and technology fields, helping win World War II and creating a path for modern computers to become a reality. We recognize him today with great honor and respect, but throughout his lifetime,…

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The central idea in, “Last of the original Navajo code talkers dies at 93” and “Mavis Batey, who helped break the German Enigma code, dies at 92” is code is very important to the war effort. The two characters played a big role in ending wars and saving lives.Also, the other idea is the different ways code can save lives. Without Mavis and Chester people in the war could have died. These two were very important and did more than they take credit for. However, the way central idea is developed…

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Alen Turing. Criptogropher from Cambridge who is hired to a group of men to break the Nazis enigma code. However he feels team ates will only slow him down, and after taking control of the group he starts by firing two men who he feels are inadequate for the job. His next step is to find new people to fill there positions by putting out a cross word puzzle to fish for canidates. Jone Clark becomes a part of the group along with another man. The story then flashes back to Allen's childhood where…

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Biography (Early Life): Alan Turing was born in June 23, 1912. At his early age he was separated from his parents due to the fact that they had been working overseas. When he was 13, he was to sent to Sherborne School which was a boarding school located in Dorset. The education system that was run there meant that his scientific mind wasn’t given any kind of encouragement and so he studied advanced science ideas by himself which was far ahead of the schools’ timetable and what he should’ve been…

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The code breaker who saved millions Intro: On September 3rd of 1939, four countries declared war on Germany, France, Australia, New Zealand, and Britain. That was the beginning of WWII for Britain. One important role they played in the war was the decryption of the Enigma code. The enigma code was first discovered by the Polish who shared the information with the British and the French when they were in fear of attack. When the Polish shared their information with the British about the Enigma,…

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In an age of industrial progress and communication mechanisms emerging, the enigma was invented just after World War I. Though Germany believed their machine was "unbreakable", the efforts to find a flaw in their system were ultimately successful. With the state-of-the-art technology and ingenuity of the inventors, the enigma had the potential to give Germany extreme advantages during World War II, but simple mistakes cost the country their machine's success as well as their success in the war. …

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Allen Turing. Cracker of the enigma code, father of computer science, and if brought into the 21st century as my classmate in the Arts & Science Program, my best friend. You see, Allen Turing and I have much in common; we both are interested in technology, both have a fondness for biology, and both enjoy riddles. This would lead us to originally bonding over our shared interests. However, after a few weeks of being friends, we would become closer due to our shared experience going through the…

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With new threats and plots being developed each day, the need to encrypt and decrypt secure communications is at an all-time high. Here in the United States the National Security Agency uses cryptanalysis to protect the nation from threats both here and overseas. All branches of the United States Armed Forces require secure communications during war and peace. The development of new cryptographic systems is paramount in keeping those forces ready. Cryptography has uses in every part of modern…

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data and to prevent hackers [4]. Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. Cryptography enables you to store sensitive information and transmit it across insecure networks (like the Internet) so that it cannot be read by anyone except the intended recipient. While cryptography is the science of securing data, cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking secure communication. Classical cryptanalysis involves an interesting combination of analytical…

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