Citric acid

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    The Citric Acid Cycle

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    Abstract The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle, is central to the formation of usable energy forms in cells. This essay will give detail on how this is achieved and the cycle’s links to other metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation. It will also explore how the cycle functions in anabolic and catabolic forms while replenishing used intermediates before examining how the cycle is regulated. Introduction The citric acid cycle being named “the hub of the metabolic wheel” is testament to its importance within the cell and within the organism. Andreas (1) described the fact that because its of such importance that it is logical to assume that it was one of the first components of the cell…

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    The citric acid cycle generates energy from the oxidation of various fuel molecules to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). Acetyl CoA undergoes several redox, hydration and decarboxylation reactions to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and hydrogen ions. The citric acid cycle links glycolysis which produces pyruvate from glucose and oxidative phosphorylation which generates ATP…

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    Organic Acids An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcohols, with –OH, can act as acids but they are usually very weak. In general, organic acids are weak acids and do not dissociate completely in water, whereas the strong mineral acids do. Lower molecular mass organic acids such…

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    With only nine substances the 8th grade had to find a combination of two or three to create one. It was harder than they thought and took long than they thought. There was a lot of disagreeing, but the 20 scientist would have to agree on one. They mixed and experimented with the nine substances. Then the scientist kicked some out and kept some in. They experimented with one by itself and a few together. Finally, they decided on one, Baking Soda and Citric Acid. The scientists found lots of…

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    help filter out any large chunks that may not have been blended as well as starch, because starch is large molecules. As soon as all of the solution is in the container, the container is immediately sealed and put on ice, in order for the reaction to not occur. After the instructor has completed all of the above steps, she will then pour the solution she just made into smaller containers for each group overflowing the containers, so that oxygen cannot enter. Oxygen can cause the reaction to…

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    cellular respiration can somewhat vary, depending on the nutrient being processed; this article will focus on the pathway of breaking down glucose. There are three main stages of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and the Electron Transport System. For the chemical enthusiasts reading this, the chemical equation to describe cellular respiration is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ®6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP and heat). Stage 1: Glycolysis The first stage is cellular respiration is called…

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    Cellular Fermentation Lab

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    This lab is based on measuring cellular respiration and fermentation. Cellular respiration can be expresses to as a method of breaking down organic molecules to release their stored energy. (Upadhyaya, 2017). Throughout cellular respiration there are two main phases which are glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. Glycolysis produces two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate and 2 molecules of ATP. In the citric acid cycle pyruvate loses one of its three carbons and then becomes attached to coenzyme A…

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    3. CAC hypothetical enzyme defect When an alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme is removed or defective, it cannot convert alpha ketoglutarate substrate to succinyl-CoA product in the citric acid cycle. Thus, the whole citric acid cycle will not continue to function. The steps of citric acid cycle will not continue once there will be a defective enzyme. Normally, NADH and FADH2 in the matrix carry electrons to deliver them in the inner membrane of mitochondria. NADH delivers electrons in…

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    Cellular Respiration Lab

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    compound Fructose 1,6 biphosphate is collected in experiment 1 and in experiment two we see that it grew in restrictive temperature where it is also adapting to other food sources. The enzyme that is mutated to get use to its restrictive temperature is phosphofructokinase and this enzyme make its phosphate group go to the other end of the sugar. In strain 152, 3-phosphoglycerate accumulates because of the enzyme Phosphoglycerokinase helps it to grow in the restrictive temperature. The pyruvate…

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    Synthesis Of Carbohydrates

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    kinase is inhibited by high levels of Acetyl CoA and ATP, this is activated by fructose 1 6-bisphosphate. The product pyruvate is transported from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membranes into the matrix, this process is activated by ADP and AMP. Most pyruvate formed is converted to Acetyl CoA which then enters the Citric Acid Cycle. The citric acid cycle (CAC) takes place in the mitochondrial matrix inside the double mitochondrial membrane. Within this process the acetyl groups are oxidized…

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