Research Question: To compare the enthalpy change of reaction of 3 neutralization reactions by using 3 different acids of distinct pH. The same base of NaOH will be used in all three experiments.
Introduction: Chemical reactions always have energy change. Energy in the form of heat, if liberated is known as exothermic and if absorbed in the reaction is known as endothermic. When a reaction carried out under standard condition at a of temperature 298K and 1 atm of pressure and 1 mole of water…
22.214.171.124. Hydrogen sulphid test (MacFaddine, 1980):
Tubes of triple sugar iron agar media were inoculated by suspected culture through stabbing into the butt and the slant then covered with sterile melted paraffin wax and incubated anaerobically for 48 h at 37°C, appearance of blackening in the butt indicates H2S production.
126.96.36.199. Sugar fermentation test (Willis, 1977):
Suspected culture was inoculated to 1% peptone water tubes containing 2% bromocresol purple and 1% quantities of the…
4.4. Physical model of the susceptibility of hot cracking for copper GTA welding
Variations of the hot cracking susceptibility during copper GTA welding could be divided into the following five stages combining the internal factor with the external factors, as shown in Fig. 14:
Fig. 14. Schematic of the physical model for the susceptibility of hot cracking during copper GTA welding.
(I). Free crystalline region The actual line of S-L is lower compared with its corresponding theoretical line…
Nucleophilic substitution reaction is that in which attacking nucleophile replaces a leaving group.
Attacking nucleophile: specie with an electron free pair or negative charge and ability to replace already present nucleophile i.e OH-
Leaving group: A specie with electron deficiency or positive charge, negative charge i.e Cl-
What is SN1 Reaction:-
SN1 indicates the unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions. Their rate determining step of the mechanism depends…
Determining the Chemical Formula of Hydrated Copper (Ⅱ) Sulfate Using the Empirical Formula
In this experiment, the molecular formula of hydrated Copper (Ⅱ) Sulfate will be determined.
In order to determine the molecular formula, the empirical formula is needed which is the ratio of moles of one substance to another. In this experiment, it is the ratio of Copper (Ⅱ) Sulfate to water.
The empirical formula can be determined if the moles of the compared substances…
Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) weapons, also referred to
as weapons of mass destruction (WMD), continue to pose a significant threat to all living
things on earth. WMD are very different from conventional weapons. These weapons
can be used in several different ways and the effects can range from environmental
destruction, to incapacitating humans or animals, or even killing them.
The Department of Defense (DOD) Strategy for Countering Weapons of Mass
The concentrations of difference between the membrane phase and feed phase based on the mechanism of mass extraction. In the case of feed solution represented radioactive simulated waste solution and dissolved in 0.5M HNO3. In the feed phase decreasing with H+ concentration. pH values at 2.5 into 5.5 in the feed phase. Fig,s(5a-5c). Shown the effect of hydrogen ion concentration in the feed phase and studied of pH range 2.5-5.5 for 0.5M HNO3. Stripping solution of 0.05M of EDTA. Initial…
The initial hypothesis that was made regarding the strength of the solid compounds was supported with this experiment. The hypothesis stated that potassium hydroxide would have the greatest effect on the acidic solution. This was supported here as it had the highest average change in pH by far. On average, the pH value of the acidic solution increased by 12.5. This is significantly higher than the increase of the other solutions, which only increased around a pH of 4. The reason why potassium…
polymerization reaction is called as polythene. Globally about 80 million tons of polyethylene is produced. The important application of the polymer is for packing.
The monomer used in this reaction is C2H4. The monomer is usually produced from petro chemical process or by dehydration of ethanol. The most widely used catalyst for the polymerization of ethylene are titanium(III)chloride which is popularly called as the Ziegler Natta catalyst and also Philips catalyst is widely used. The…
We first evaluated whether Honokiol treatment was toxic to the APP-CHO cell line. Cells were treated with various concentrations of Honokiol (0.5 μM, 1 μM, 2 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM and 20 μM) for 24 h and cell survival was determined by Prestoblue® assay (Fig.1A). As shown in Fig.1A, when exposed to Honokiol concentrations of 10 μM or lower, the viability of APP-CHO cells was the same as untreated control cells. However, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed with 20 μM Honokiol…