The purpose of this experiment was to use aldol condensation methods to synthesize colored cyclopentadienone and then UV/VIS spectrophotometry to characterize the dienone structure synthesized. The information gathered from the UV/VIS analysis was then compared to a computer model of the desired product to analyze the optimal 3D structure of the dienone. The base catalyzed condensation reaction was used to form the product for analysis, followed by vacuum filtration to recover the product. Both…
I assume that as the solution is treated with higher amount of fertilizer, the Spirulina cells will reproduce better and survive for longer time as there will be higher amount of nutrients supplied. Therefore, it is assumed that the Spirulina-concentration of the trials treated with 1.0mL fertilizer will be higher than those treated with 0.5mL or 0.0mL. Although wastewaters contain elements which are vital for the Spirulina growth, as it contain other unknown substances as well,…
of copper powder in other less concentrated amounts of nitric acid. This is as if the concentration of nitric acid is increased, then the amount of time taken for the copper powder to react will decrease, because nitric acid is a highly corrosive chemical and will therefore lead to a rapid and powerful reaction when it comes in contact with the copper powder, thus…
Phase Solubility results
The phase-solubility diagram (figure 1) obtained was classified as AL type(20) because the apparent solubility of ISH increased linearly with β-CD concentration over the entire concentration range studies, thereby suggesting the formation of a water soluble complex. A slope value of less than one indicated that an inclusion complex in a molar stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 was formed between the drug and β-CD in solution. The stability constant (718.58 M–1), computed from…
Conformational isomerism is a type of stereoisomerism whereby the isomers are interconverted by rotations about the single bonds. There be terms used below such as eclipsed conformation, staggered conformation,dihedral angle and a few more. Eclipsed conformation is the conformation whereby the C-H bonds on one carbon is directly aligned with the C-H bonds of the adjacent carbon. When the C-H bond of one carbon bisects the H-C-H bond on the adjacent carbon, it is known as staggered…
2. Materials and methods
Zingerone was obtained from Alfa Aesar, Heysham, UK. Cisplatin, Bradford reagent, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glacial metaphosphoric acid (Gmpa), 5,5ˊ-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), proteinase K and agarose were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co, MO, USA. All other chemicals and solvents used were of the highest purity grade available.
Sixty Adult male albino rats (180-200g) were…
Result and discussion:
The substrate specificity for the PPO is represented in table. The Km values for catechol, L-DOPA, L-tyrosine, and p-Cresol are 4.12 × 10-3, 16.4 × 10-3, 6.12 × 10-3, and 5.01 × 10-3, respectively. Catechol was the best suited substrate, having the lowest Km value and highest Vmax value when compared to other 3 substrates (Table 1).
Table 1: Substrate specificity of PPO enzyme
Substrates Specific activity
(units mg-1 protein) Km
Since suitable crystals for X-ray single crystal analysis was not obtained, to have reliable structural information, HR-TEM analysis of the product was carried out. The average size of the assembly calculated from HR-TEM measurement is found to be 2.8 nm which is in good agreement with the size of the previously reported Pd6L8 assembly where L is the non N-methylated (2.5nm, Fig. 2).9
As first step, to explore the catalytic activity of 1 in copper and phosphine free Sonogashira coupling reaction…
Lab partner: Donovan Ortiz
Bio 118: A-65
GTA: Mian Li, UGTA: Shelby Schaffer
Intro: Enzymes are important biological molecules that help catalyze numerous reactions in the body. They are an arrangement of proteins designed to serve very specific roles. Enzymes contain active sites that substrates bind to. The enzymes then help orient those substrates so they achieve ideal reaction conditions. As a result, substrates are broken down much faster than they would on their own…
How the changing mass of solute effects the heat given out when dissolved in water
To investigate how the changing mass of a solute will affect the energy given out.
Dissolving is when a solute is mixed into a solvent to form a solution. Dissolving can be either endothermic or exothermic. Endothermic reactions happen when the energy given out when bonds are broken, is greater than the energy given out when bonds are made. As more energy is used and taken in, the surroundings…