Cell wall

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    The 5 modes of action for antimicrobial drugs can affect the cell wall. It affects the peptidoglycan layer on the cell wall. It does this by breaking the peptidoglycan chains apart. An example of a drug is penicillin, methicillin and ampicillin. The second thing they can do is affect the plasma membrane. They do this by breaking up the lipids o the plasma membrane. Some drugs that do this are polymyxin, bacitracin. Most are antibacterial and anti-fungal drugs. The third thing they can do I s…

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    Normally during cell wall synthesis peptidoglycan precursors is transported across the cell membrane into the periplasm where it binds to cell wall acceptors. These precursors undergo excessive cross linking by tranpeptidase and D-alanyl carboxypeptidase to synthesise the cell wall. The presence of β-lactam rings competitively inhibits the enzymes by binding to their active site. Thus inhibiting cell wall synthesis which stops cell division and causes lysis due to fragility of cell wall and high…

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    free water. The bound water is held within cell walls by bonding forces between water and cellulose molecules, while the free water is contained in the cell cavities and is not held by these forces. The amount of water in wood can be calculated and expressed as a percent of the dry weight is called the “Moisture Content” (MC). The hygroscopic nature of wood cause the water movement, either along the grain or across the grain. The free water moves through cell cavities (along the grain) and pit…

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    Although these two cells share a lot of similarities there are also many differences between the common prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, however more specifically I will be exploring how the structure relates to the function of an animal cell and a non-photosynthetic prokaryotic cell, and it is explained that, “analysing a biological structure gives us clues about what it does and how it works” (Campbell et al: 2014, p.52). The structure and the function of a cell generally aren’t one without…

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    The development of advanced microscopes has enabled scientists to further their investigation on the criteria for life. As a result, biologists have been confronted with a baffling question: is there a size limit on life? If so, then just how small can something be before it can no longer be considered alive? Ever since the discovery of nano-sized particles called “nanobacteria” or “nanobes”, researchers have been scrambling to unravel and analyze the mysterious functions of these purported…

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    Throughout the semester in the microbiology lab we have been taught how to conduct multiple experiments to identify microorganisms. Many of these experiments can be used on all different types of microorganisms but cumulatively they can help isolate a singular microorganism’s identity. At the beginning of the semester we were divided into several groups and were assigned an unknown of which we were tasked with identifying. Being assigned number 14 as our unknown, my group consisting of…

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    Chitin

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    Chitin is a linear polysaccharide, with β-(1-4)-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans (crab, shrimp, lobster, insects) & molluscs, as well as the cell walls of algae and fungi, chitin is the second-most naturally abundant polysaccharide after cellulose [1, 2]. Chitin occurs naturally in the polymorphic forms: α, β and γ. The α-polymorphic form of chitin is the most abundant in nature, present in the strong exoskeleton of crustaceans [6]. α-Chitin forms tightly…

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    Macromolecules

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    Identifying the Presence of Macromolecules Using Benedict’s, Biuret’s, Sudan III, and Lugol’s Solution Betty Ngo Introduction Macromolecules are the critically important large molecules that fall into four main classes: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Macromolecules are polymers which are built up by monomers. Monomers become polymers from the process dehydration reaction and polymers are broken apart by the process hydrolysis. Macromolecules are critically important…

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    used as a representation of an actual cell, the shell being the cell wall, and the yolk being the nucleus, which like an actual cell also expands when placed in a substance like water, and shrinks when placed in a thick substance like corn syrup. I hypothesize that water will make the egg hypotonic, which means that the cell is swollen due to an excess of water in its environment and corn syrup will make the egg hypertonic, which is the shriveling of a cell due to a lack of water and or salt in…

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    Ro System Lab Report

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    The product water permeates through the fiber walls into the bore and exits through the tube sheet into permeate port. The brine flows between the outside of the fiber bundle and the inside wall of the pressure vessel to a brain port. The permeate exists at low pressure, but the brine undergoes a minimal pressure drop and is available to feed successive stages for additional…

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