Carbonyl

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    Carbonyl compounds undergo various types of reaction. In these reaction the carbonyl carbon or carbonyl oxygen is prone to attack generally by a nucleophile. Different types of carbonyl compounds undergo different types of reactions and the mechanisms of them are also different. The products or by-products or intermediate products of these reactions are very much useful in laboratory synthesis, industry etc. here we will discuss some very much important reactions which are very important for producing some useful chemical products.  Reactions of aldehyde and ketones – Aldehydes and ketones response to many famous name reactions like Aldol condensation, Benzoin condensation, Cannizaro reaction, Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement, Beckmann rearrangement,…

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    REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES ABSTRACT The difference between aldehydes and ketones is by having a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group. This makes the aldehydes very easy to oxidize. Ketones do not have that hydrogen atom and are resistant to oxidation. They are only oxidized by powerful oxidizing agents which have the ability to break the carbon-carbon bonds. This report is about the reactions of aldehydes and ketones. This was done to determine how they react when different…

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    Iodoform Test

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    Carbonyl compounds are the compounds the contain C=O group which is called carbonyl group (double bond oxygen to a carbon). There are many types of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides etc. Aldehydes and ketones are the oxidation products of alcohols. Depending on the alcohol’s structure, the product obtained will be different. Primary alcohols have one carbon and two hydrogen atoms attached will produce aldehyde and then to carboxylic acid in two…

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    Dichromate To Isoborneol

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    impurity of borneol the melting point of camphor will drastically decrease. The melting point of the recovered product in part two which is isoborneol was 170°C. The true value melting point for isoborneol is 212°C. The depression in the melting point for isoborneol would also be an impurity of borneol, as indicated in the IR spectrum of isoborneol still showing a carbonyl group. Based on the results of the melting point, even though there was some impurity, it gives evidence that the…

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    Acetone Synthesis Essay

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    There was a confirmation of 4 distinct peaks, reflecting the 4 distinct types of hydrogen. The area represented by the 4 peaks was 10, which confirmed the empirical formula of C5H10O. The figure shows the areas at the top of each peak and this reflects the total hydrogen atoms that are responsible for producing the signal. The 2 peaks shown at d 2.4 and d 2.1 relate to the hydrogens on the carbon adjacent to the carbonyl with absorption in the range d 2 and d 3. The other 2 signals at d 0.9…

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    Unknown 105 A

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    that don’t; which in return help remove any impurities that were present in the solid. Functional group testing is done to confirm there is a functional group and to rule out other functional group. Ketone and aldehyde are going to react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) because the structure has a carbonyl group that is presented. Chromic acid functional group testing indicates weather the unknown is a ketone or aldehyde. The structure of ketone won’t interact with the chromic acid…

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    Esterification Lab

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    in the carboxylic acid. Esters can be formed through a process known as esterification, which starts with a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. The carbonyl carbon in the carboxylic acid acts as an electrophile and the oxygen atom in the alcohol acts as a nucleophile. However, this nucleophile and electrophile are both too weak for the reaction to occur and adding heat fails to catalyze the reaction. One option would be to make the alcohol a stronger nucleophile by converting it to an oxide.…

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    huge size it will not be easy for the chain to lie closely. The polychloroethen has small space of crystallinity and is amorphous. How can you account for the fact that poly(chloroethene) is much stiffer than poly(ethene)? (2.4) It believed that the main difference is the Cl molecule that has caused the stiffness in the chloroethane. This is due to bond between carbon and chlorine which is more polar bonds than the carbon and haydron bonds.Therefore there are more polar attractiopn between…

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    Isoborneol Reduction

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    the final product was expected to be 0.250 grams. However, 0.212 grams of the final product was weighed out so the percentage yield was 84.8%. Results Discussion In this lab a reduction reaction was conducted where Camphor was converted into two products with Isoborneol being the major product and Borneol being the minor product. In the reaction Camphor had its carbonyl group converted to an alcohol group due to reduction taking place. The reason the reduction took place was because…

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    The objective of this experiment was to study the stereochemistry of the borohydride reduction of camphor. Sodium Borohydride is a reducing agent that is able to reduce ketones and aldehydes. In this case, camphor, which contains a ketone, was reduced with sodium borohydride. Reduction of a carbonyl with sodium borohydride occurs when the hydride ion adds to the carbonyl carbon, breaking the C=O bond and creating a new C-H bond. When the reduction occurs, the hydride transfer will occur on the…

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