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    Introduction and Definition Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a group of nonspecific, nonprogressive disorders of posture and movement control, where cerebral refers to the brain and palsy refers to the loss or impairment of motor function (Hadders-Algra, 2014, p. 1; NINDS, 2013). It is the leading cause of childhood disability and is reported in 2-3.3 per 1,000 births (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [NINDS], 2013). This means that its diagnosis varies from case to case…

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    Tests- MRI, Fmri, PET, And SPECT-Skin Temperature Measurement -Infrared Thermometry, Laser Doppler Flowmetry, And Infrared Thermography -Sudomotor Function Tests Resting Sweat Output (RSO) And Thermoregulatory Sweat Test (TST)- Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (QSART)-Neurophysiological Tests -Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) -Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEP)- Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) - Sympathetic Nerve…

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    Diffuse Axonal Injury The tearing and shearing of axons and small vessels widespread in the white matter of the cerebral, a traumatic brain trauma of sheering forces within vessels (Park et al. 2009). The components of this injury is the acceleration or declaration of the skull followed by head injury…

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    the entire muscle but only a number of muscle fibres within a muscle. The entity motor neuron plus the power fibres it stimulates, is call a motor unit. The motor end plate (also known as the neuromuscular junction) is the seam of the motor neurons axon and the muscle fibres it stimulates. In précis the sliding thread hypothesis of power decrease can be out of order downward into four separate stage, these be; 1. Muscle commencement: The coast nerve stimulates an act potential (impulse)…

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    Cases: 1. A 13-year-old male presents with a two-year history of progressive weaknesses in both upper and lower extremities. He finds it difficult to lift heavy objects off a shelf. When sitting on the floor he has to hold onto objects such as a chair to pull himself up. On examination, there is significant wasting of muscles in the shoulders, upper arms, and hips. There is significant weakness on muscle testing (i.e., the patient is unable to exert a normal force with muscle contraction). On…

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    Dyslexic Person Analysis

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    How Does the Brain of a Dyslexic Person Function in Contrast to the Brain of a Non-Dyslexic Person? What is dyslexia? This question seems to be on repeat in my family’s conversations. Right now, my family is in the process of finding out if my seven year old sister has dyslexia. She has been to reading tutors and doctors but we cannot seem to figure out why she is struggling so much with reading. She is currently taking tests to determine if she has dyslexia. Since I am her overprotective sister…

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    Tinnitus Limbic System

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    LIMBIC SYSTEM AND TINNITUS Introduction A human body is a very delicate and complicated group of systems and organs that work together. We can say that each part of the body is controlled by and connected to several many organs. Thus, many diseases and disorders in one organ can actually indicate the error in completely different organ or system. That brings us to this, The limbic system and Tinnitus. A person who has tinnitus is a person who is continuously hear noisy and annoying voices and…

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    Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) is a rare, neuromuscular junction autoimmune disease. The immune system produces immunoglobulin G antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) residing on the cell membrane of the presynaptic nerve ending.1,3,5,6 The etiology of LEMS is decreased exocytosis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from presynaptic neurons into the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) caused by autoantibodies attacking VGCCs.3,7.10 There are two distinct groups of LEMS…

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    Gene Trap Essay

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    Gene traps are the plasmid or retrovirus-based vectors having a reporter gene that is only expressed when integrated in a functional gene. They were originally developed for the study of insertional mutagenesis in mouse. The gene traps were used to identify and characterize genes which were regulated by exogenous stimuli or during development process. The gene trap is a process which makes it possible to identify genes that gives rise to phenotypic effects when they are switched off, and also…

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    1. Neurogenesis and memory 1.1. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus The hippocampus is a brain region that responsible for learning, memory and mood. One of the important reasons for memory and mood dysfunction is the dentate gyrus (DG) reduction [12, 13]. The subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of neural progenitor cells generated neurons and glia in adulthood and during adulthood [14]. Neurogenesis also have a role in mood regulation; the dorsal hippocampus is an…

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