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    (efferent) nerves are further divided into two; somatic system (voluntary control) and autonomic system (involuntary control). (Fig. 1: Microscopic images of nerve cells and axons.) Nerves convey messages…

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    Electrical and chemical synapses serve different functions in the nervous system, and the use of each type of synapse has advantages and disadvantages for situations requiring signal transmission. One of the advantages of the use of an electrical synapse is speed, as electrical synapses allow action potentials to pass directly from neuron to neuron through the use of gap junctions. This direct passage and resulting speed of transmission isn’t present in chemical synapses. Chemical synapses rely…

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    The parasympathetic system is also referred to as the craniosacral system i.e. preganglionic neurons leaving the brain via the cranial nerves and also leaving the spinal cord via the sacral nerves. Preganglionic neurons have long axons. Postganglionic neurons have short axons that terminate in the organ being innervated. The cranial nerves that are involved in the parasympathetic system include the following: • Oculomotor Nerve (III): target is the eye. Preganglionic neurons originate in…

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    way throughout the body using electrical synapses. While neurons are made up off a cell body referred to as the soma, dendrites, and axon. Nerves consist of axons and sometimes nerve fibers, and each of those axons has the ability to produce an action potential. Action potential is a well-preserved message as a response to a specific stimulus that travels down the axon. Moreover, sodium/potassium pumps are located in the…

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    Gabriela Medina Psychology 2301 Chapter 2 This is an important chapter with a lot of vital information about the nervous system, the neurons, the brain, the endocrine system, and genetics and behavior. The nervous system helps the body carry vital information from and to the brain. The brain can adapt to certain environments and can change depending on the environment that you are in and your way of thinking. It can spread information with the help of neurons, who pass…

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    Chemoreceptors

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    Describing the Roles of Sensory Receptors, Sensory Neurons and Specialized Sensory Receptors Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system that convert external stimuli from an individual’s environment into internal electrical impulses that can be transmitted from one neuron to another. For example, taste buds located in our mouth are sensory neurons that work with olfactory receptors in order to determine the flavour of the food. They are able to do this, in simple terms, because a…

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    Response to Dr Foreman’s questions a. Discuss the nociceptive mechanisms, including the postsynaptic receptors of the spinal neurons, transmitters, pathways and nuclei that are activated when the injury occurs. Also include in your answer the explanation for the sharp pain and the long lasting pain that you experience with this injury. Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that are activated by noxious stimuli. These nociceptors are the free nerve endings of primary sensory…

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    primary function of a neuron is to communicate information to other cells in electrical and chemical form. It’s important for everyone to know how neurons grow and develop. The main components of a neuron are the dendrites, the axon, the myelin sheath, the axon terminals, and the soma. The model of a neuron is very similar to the structure of a tree. Starting from the top, there are the dendrites. These are short fibers that extend from the soma. The job of a dendrite is to receive…

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    Neurodegeneration

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    According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, there are more than 600 neurologic disorders 1. Neurodegeneration is one of the main contributors to Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Multiple Sclerosis. Neurodegeneration is the debilitating condition along with those diseases, which results in the healthy, functioning nerve cells to deteriorate and slowly die off. Deterioration gradually leads to the loss of cognitive skills, motor skills, and eventually death of the nerve…

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    neurons. Some examples of the glial cells are astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. There are three main types of neurons which are composed of sensory neuron, motor neuron, and interneuron. All three neurons are made up of dendrites, cell bodies, and axons. The sensory neurons detect sensory information from the outside environment and are the main factors that make up the five senses such as smell and taste. Nervous tissues form a…

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