Atrophy

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    Spinal Muscular Atrophy, or SMA, was discovered in the 80’s by two doctors. Early in the 1980’s Doctors Werdnig and Hoffman talked of a disorder of progressive muscular weakness starting in babies, leading to early death. The disease was characterized as a loss of anterior horn cell. The lower motor neuron degeneration has been confirmed to be caused by a loss of anterior horn cells in the cranial nerve nuclei and spinal cord. The entire body is affected from Spinal Muscular Atrophy. SMA affects the control of muscle movement. Spinal Muscular Atrophy robs people of their ability to walk, eat, swallow, breathe, and in some cases the ability to sit or speak. In a familiar case a boy was robbed not only of his ability to walk, eat, and breathe,…

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    Alveolar Ridge Resorption

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    Alveolar Ridge Resorption: Alveolar bone resorption is a normal physiologic response following teeth extraction. The causes of alveolar bone volume loss can occur before dental extraction due to periodontal disease, periapical pathology and trauma to the teeth and bone. (SchroppL et al.2003) (1, 2). Additionally, the traumatic removal of teeth can cause bone loss and must be prevented (1,3). Finally, the alveolar bone suffers atrophy after tooth extraction, which has been well documented (1, 4,…

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    Waking up one day, remembering that every inch of one’s body can not move, but the mind knows what is going on; asking why is this happening. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig disease, has many people waking up to this feeling. ALS is a disease, where your brain is functioning normal, but other parts of the body are unfunctional. Now the brain is not functioning how it normally should, but the body is functioning how it should be. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy…

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    Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) is a common term used for a group of inherited retinal disease. It degenerate the retina of the eye over time, eventually leading to blindness. This condition affects both eyes, and is not painful for the dog. In typical PRA rod photoreceptor responses are lost first followed by cone photoreceptor responses. It is seen in many breeds of dogs and very rarely in cats. It is similar to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in human. RP is transmitted in different…

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    Introduction A selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) in (INSERTCITY, INSERTSTATE) is a natural alternative to steroid bodybuilding shots that have high levels of testosterone in them. It can be taken in a capsule form for easy consumption, but sometimes it is also given in the form of an injection. And it is a completely legal supplement that doesn 't require a doctor 's approval to buy it. Products containing it have high levels of androgen that link androgen receptors together. So in…

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    Spinal Muscular Atrophy

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    It is a group of inherited disorders that cause progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the second leading cause of neuromuscular disease. It is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait (a person must get the defective gene from both parents to be affected). Three types of SMA affect children before age one year. Type 0 is the most severe form of spinal muscular atrophy and begins before birth. Usually, the first symptom of type 0 is less movement…

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    Multiple System Atrophy

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    INTRODUCTION Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized by a combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic dysfunction and corticospinal tract impairment [1]. There are two subtypes of MSA according to the dominant clinical features; MSA-P presenting parkinsonism and MSA-C presenting cerebellar symptoms. The cardinal features of MSA-C are common to hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), which demonstrates variable onset ages and a slower progression. Indeed, considerable…

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    Sitting, walking, standing and running are actions we take for granted. However, 1 in 6000 people are unable to perform these daily functions (Reference, Genetics). Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disorder affecting the motor neurons located in the spinal cord and brainstem responsible for muscular movement (Reference, Genetics). Genes accountable for the production of survival motor neurons (SMN) proteins, the SMN1 and SMN2, suffer mutations or deletions in their genes (Reference,…

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    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of alpha motor neurons, leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and even death1 .Mostly it has a recessive inheritance; however, autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance has been documented2 The reported incidence is about 1 in 10,000 live births with a carrier frequency of 1 in 50.3 The gene for SMA, survival motor neuron (SMN1) has been mapped on the 5q11.2-13.3 region and there are two…

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    1. Describe the following cellular adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia (atypical hyperplasia), and metaplasia. Atrophy is when a cell adapts due to decreased trophic influences, the cell function is decreased and nutrition is decreased, this process decreases the cell size because it looses its subcellular organelles and substances often causing organs to decrease in size and function. Hypertrophy is the opposite of atrophy and causes the cells to enlarge and therefore…

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